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110 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Diversity
The variety of group experiences resulting from the social structure.
Critical Thinking
The process by which students learn to apply sociological concepts to observable events in society.
Mass Media
Channels of communication that are available to very wide segments of the population.
Globalization
Increased economic, political, and social interconnectedness and interdepnedence among societies in the world.
Sociology
The study of human behavior in society.
Sociological Imagination
The ability to see the societal patterns that influence individual and group life.
Applied Sociology
The use of sociological research and theory in solving real human problems
Capitalism
An economic system based on the pursuit of profit and the sanctity of private property
Conflict Theory
A theoretical perspective that emphasizes the role of power and coercion in producing social order
Dramaturgical model
A perspective that sees society like a stage (that is, a drama) wherein social actors are "on stage," projecting and portraying social roles to others
Empirical
Refers to something that is based on careful and systematic observation
Enlightenment
The period in seventeenth and eighteenth-century Europe characterized by faith in the ability of human reason to solve society's problems
Functionalism
A theoretical perspective that interprets each part of soecity in terms of how it contributes to the stability of the whole.
Humanitarianism
The principle that human reason can successfully direct social change for the betterment of society.
Issues
Problems that affect large numbers of people and have their origins in the institutional arrangements and history of a society
Latent Fuctions
Indirect, nonobvious consequences (functions) emerging from the activities of institutions
Manifest Functions
The stated and open goals of social behavior
Organic Metaphor
Refers to the similarity early sociologists saw between society and other organic systems.
Positivism
A system of thoughtin which accurate observation and description is considered the highest form of knowledge
Postmodernism
A theoretical perspective based on the idea that society is not an objective thing but is found in the words and images--or discourses--that people use to represent behavior and ideas
Power
A person or group's ability to excercise influence and control over others
Social Action
Behavior to which people give meaning
Social Darwinism
The idea that society evolves to allow the survival of the fittest
Social facts
Social patterns that are external to individuals
Social Institution
An established and organized system of social behavior with a recognized purpose
Social Structure
The patterns of social relationshiops and social institutions that comprise society
Sociological Imagination
The ability to see the societal patterns that influence individual and group life
Symbolic Interaction Theory
A theoretical perspective claiming that people act toward things because of the meaning things have for them.
Troubles
Privately felt problems that come from events or feelings in one individual's life
Verstehen
The process of understanding social behavior from the point of view of those engaged in it.
Concept
Any abstract characteristic or attribute that can be potentially measured
Content Analysis
The analysis of meanings in cultural artifacts suchs as books, songs, and other forms of cultural communication
Controlled Experiment
A method of collecting data that can determine whether a given factor causes something independently of other factors
Correlation
A statistical technique that analyzes patterns of association between pairs of sociological variables
Cross-Tabulation
A table showing the relationship between two variables.
Data
The systematic information that sociologists use to investigate research questions
Data analysis
The process by which sociologists organize collected data to discover what patterns and uniformities are revealed
Deductive Reasoning
A form of reasoning in which specific hypoteses, or predictions, are derived from general principles
Dependent variable
The variable that is a presumed effect
Empirical
Refers to something that is based on careful and systematic observation
Evaluation Research
Research assessing the effect of policies and programs
Field Research
Research which usually invovles the participation of the researcher with the people or group(s) being studied.
Generalization
A claim that a finding represents something greater than the specific observations on which finding is based
Hypothesis
A statement about what one expects to find in research
Independent variable
A variable treated as the presumed cause of a particular result
Indicator
Something that points to or reflects an abstract concept
Inductive reasoning
A logical process of building general principles from specific observations
Informant
A group member secretly in alliance with the researcher, as an aid the researcher in studying the group
Intervening variable
A variable caused by the independent variable and which in turn causes the dependent variable.
Market research
A type of evaluation research, the purpose of which is to evaluate the sales potential of some product or service
Mean
The sum of a set of values divided by the number of cases from which the values are obtained; an average
Median
The midpoint in a series of values that are arranged in numerical order
Mode
The value that appears most frequently in a set of data
Participant Observation
A method whereby the sociologist becomes both a participant in the group being studied and a scientific observer of the group
Percentage
Parts per hundred
Policy Research
Research intended to produce results for social policy
Population
A relatively large collection of people (or other unit) that a researcher studies and about which generalizations are made
Probability
The likelihood that a specific behavior or event will occur
Qualitative Research
Research that is somewhat less structured yet focused on a question being asked; it is more interpretive and tends to have greater depth than quanitative research
Quantitative Research
Research that uses statistival methods
Random Sample
A sample that gives everyone in the population an equal chance of being selected
Rate
Parts per a given number (for example, per 10,000 per 100,000)
Reliability
The likelihood that a particular measure would produce the same results if the measure were repeated
Replication Study
Research that is repeated exactly but on a different group of people at a different time
Research Design
The overall logic and strategy used in a research project
Sample
Any subset from a population that a researcher studies.
Scientific Method
The steps in a research process including observation, hypothesis testing, analysis of data, and generalization
Validity
The degree to which an indicator accurately measures or reflects a concept
Variable
Something that can havemore than one value
Beliefs
Shared ideas held collectively by people withina given culture
Couterculture
Subculture created as a reaction against the values of the dominant culture
Cultural Diffusion
The transmission of cultural elements from one society or culture to another
Cultural Hegemony
The pervasive and excessive influence of one culture throughout society
Cultural Relativism
The idea that something can be understood and judged only in relationship to the cultural context in which it appears
Culture
The complex system of meaning and behavior that defines the way of life for a given group or society
Culture lag
The delay in cultural adjustments to changing social conditions
Culture Shock
The feeling of disorientation that can come when one encounters a new or rapidly changed cultural sitsuation
Dominant Culture
The culture of the most powerful group in society
Ethocentrism
The belief that one's in-group is superior to all out-groups
Ethnomethodology
A technique for studying human interactionby deliberatley disrupting social norms and observing how individuals attempt to restore normalcy
Folkways
The general standards of behavior adhered to by a group
Global culture
Diffusion of a single culture throughout the world
Language
A set of symbols and rules that, put together in a meaningful way, provides a complex communication system
Law
The written set of guidelines that define what is right and wrong in society
Adult Socialization
The process of learning new roles and expectations in adult life
Anticipatory Socialization
The process of learning the expectations associated with a role one expects to enter in the future
Ego
The part of the self representing reason and common sense
Game Stage
The stage in childhood when children become capable of taking a multitude of rolesat the same time
Generalized Other
The abstract composite of social roles and social expectations
Id
The part of the personality that inlcudes various impulses and drives, including sexual passions and desires, biological urges, and human instincts
Identity
How one defines oneself
Imitation Stage
The stage in childhood when chilldren copy the behavior of those around them
Life Course Perspective
Sociological framework for studying aging that connects people's personal attributes, the roles they occupy, the life events they experience, and their sociohistorical context
Looking-glass self
The idea that people's conception of self arises through reflection about their relationship to others
Object relations theory
A psychoanalytic theory of socialization arguing that social relationships children experience early in life determine the development of their personality
Peers
Those of similar status
Personality
The relatively consistent parttern of behavior, feelings, and beliefs in a given person
Play Stage
The stage in childhood when children begin to take on the roles of significant peopl in thier environment
Psychoanalytic Theory
A theory of socialization positing that the unconscious mind shapes human behavior
Resocialization
The process by which existing social roles are radically altered or replaced
Rite of Passage
Ceremony or ritual that symbolizes the passage of an individual from one role to another
Roles
The expected behavior associated with a given status in society
Self
Our concept of who we are, as formed in relationship to others
Self-esteem
The value a person places on his or her identity
Significant others
Those with whom we have a close affiliation
Social identity complexity
A term referring to how a person sugjectively interprets the interrelationships among multiple group identities
Social learning Theory
A theory of socialization positing that the formation of identity is a learned response to social stimuli
socialization
The process through which people learn the expectations of society
Socialization agents
Those who pass on social expectations
Taking the role of the other
The process of imagining oneself from the point of view of another