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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Deviance
the recognized violation of cultural norms
Crime
the violation of a society's formally enacted criminal law
Social control
attempts by society to regulate people's thoughts and behavior
Is social control informal or formal?
Informal
Criminal justice system
a formal response by police, courts, and prison officials to alleged violoations of the law
Cesare Lombroso theorized that criminals stand out...
physically- low forehead, prominent jaw and cheekbones, protruding ears, hariness, and unusually long arms
William Sheldon suggested that ____ ________ might predict criminality
body structure (boys with muscular, athletic builds)
The Glueck's confirmed Shelden's conclusion but cautioned that a powerful build does or does not necessarily cause or even predict criminality.
does not
The Glueck's suggested that ________ tend to be more distant from powerfully built _____, who in turn grow up to show less ___________ toward others.
Parents
sons
sensitivity
Reckless and Dinitz came up with an analysis to illustrate the psychological approach that is known as...
containment theory
Deviance, as well as conformity, is shaped by...
society
Three foundations of deviance are...
Deviance varies according to cultural norm.
People become deviant as others define them that way.
Both norms and the way people define situations involve social power.
True or False:
Deviance is a necessary element of social organization.
True
Who said that there is nothing abnormal about deviance?
Emile Durkheim
Deviance performs these 4 basic functions
1. Deviance affirms cultural values and norms
2. Responding to deviance clarifies moral boundaries
3. Responding to deviance brings people together
4. Deviance encourages social change
Deviance
the recognized violation of cultural norms
Crime
the violation of a society's formally enacted criminal law
Social control
attempts by society to regulate people's thoughts and behavior
Is social control informal or formal?
Informal
Criminal justice system
a formal response by police, courts, and prison officials to alleged violoations of the law
Cesare Lombroso theorized that criminals stand out...
physically- low forehead, prominent jaw and cheekbones, protruding ears, hariness, and unusually long arms
William Sheldon suggested that ____ ________ might predict criminality
body structure (boys with muscular, athletic builds)
The Glueck's confirmed Shelden's conclusion but cautioned that a powerful build does or does not necessarily cause or even predict criminality.
does not
The Glueck's suggested that ________ tend to be more distant from powerfully built _____, who in turn grow up to show less ___________ toward others.
Parents
sons
sensitivity
Reckless and Dinitz came up with an analysis to illustrate the psychological approach that is known as...
containment theory
Deviance, as well as conformity, is shaped by...
society
Three foundations of deviance are...
Deviance varies according to cultural norm.
People become deviant as others define them that way.
Both norms and the way people define situations involve social power.
True or False:
Deviance is a necessary element of social organization.
True
Who said that there is nothing abnormal about deviance?
Emile Durkheim
Deviance performs these 4 basic functions
1. Deviance affirms cultural values and norms
2. Responding to deviance clarifies moral boundaries
3. Responding to deviance brings people together
4. Deviance encourages social change
Robert Merton aruged that excessive deviance arises from particular _______ ___________.
social arrangements
The extent and kind of deviance depend on whether a society provides the _____ to achieve cultural _____.
means
goals
Merton's 4 responses to failure are:
innovation
ritualism
retreatism
rebellion
Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin extended Merton's theory, proposing that crime depends on the _______ ________ _______ that frames a person's life.
relative opportunity structure
An example of a criminal subcultures is:
gangs
Example of a conflict subculture:
armed gangs
Example of a retreatist subculture:
drug or alcohol abusing gangs
Walter Miller believes that deviant subcultures are characterized in these 6 ways:
1.Trouble
2.Toughness
3.Smartness
4.A need for excitement
5.A belief in fate
6.A desire for freedom
Elijah Anderson believes that _____ people are more likely to commit a crime than _____ people
poor
rich
Labeling theory
the assertion that deviance and conformity result not so much from what people do as from how others respond to those actions
Edwin Lemert's definition of primary deviance:
violations that provoke slight reaction from others and have little effet on a person's self-concept
The response to primary deviance can set in motion _________ _________, by which a person repeatedly violates a norm and begins to take on a deviant identity
secondary deviance
Secondary deviance marks the start of what Erving Goffman called a ______ ______.
deviant career
Stigma
a powerfully negative label that greatly changes a person's self-concept and social identity
Thomas Szasz suggests that we should forget the idea of _________ _________ entirely
mental illness
Medicalization of deviance
the transformation of moral and legal deviance into a medical condition
Deviance has 3 consequences:
It affects...
1.who responds to deviance
2.how people respond
3.the personal competence of the deviant person