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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
social group
a collection of people who interact with one another and have a certain feeling of unity (sorority)
social aggregate
just a number of people who happen to be in one place but do not interact with each other (people in line at a store)
social category
number of people who have something in common but do not interact with each other or gather in one place (men)
the group to which an individual is strongly tied as a member
the group of which an individual is not a member (Gamma Phi Beta)
Three characteristics of an in-group
1. use of symbols such as names, slogans, dress, and badges to identify themselves so that they will be distinguishable from the out-group
2. view themselves in terms of positive stereotypes and the out-group in terms of negative stereotypes
3. inclined to compete or clash with the out-group
reference group
a group that is used as a frame of reference for evaluating one's own behavior (in-groups; can be any group and you don't have to be a member)(family)
primary group
individuals interact informally, relate to each other as whole persons, and enjoy their relationship for its own sake (sorority, family, etc)
secondary group
individuals do not know each other personally, interact formally if at all, and relate to each other only in terms of particular roles and for certain practical purposes. (salesperson and customer)
Three types of leaders:
1. Instrumental leader
2. Expressive leader
3. Laissez-faire leader
instrumental leader
achieve their group's goal by getting others to focus on task performance. "Let's get to work! We're getting off-track!" (Also known as autocratic leaders.) Generally disliked by group but most effective.
expressive leader
achieve group harmony by making others feel good. (Also known as democratic leaders.) More concerned with members' feelings so that cohesiveness can reign in the group. Generally liked by group and more effective.
laissez-faire leader
lets others work more or less on their own. Widely assumed that people, especially if educated/skilled, will perform well if left with a minimum of direction, instruction, or supervision from above. Generally medium-liked and least effective.
idiosyncrasy credit
the privilege that allows leaders to deviate from their groups' norms or, by extension, society's norms. (Bill Clinton's affair.)
conducted classic short line-long line experiment to test pressure to conform. Found 1/3 changed their answer to the group's answer even when they knew the group was wrong and they were right.
Solomon Asch
conducted classic teacher-learner shock punishment test to examine pressure to be obedient to authority- found most subjects shocked learners for incorrect answers when told to even though they thought the learners were in excruciating pain.
Stanley Milgram
the tendency for members of a group to maintain a consensus to the extent of ignoring the truth (caused Kennedy and advisors to invade Cuba)
coined the term groupthink
Irving Janis
group of two people; can easily become the most cohesive because its members are inclined to be most personal and interact most intensely. Also least durable because if one person leaves it's over
three-person group; if one person leaves it can still survive, but makes it possible for two people to gang up on the third. also possible for third to patch up an argument between the other two
The more people that join a group, the more _____ and the less ______ it becomes
durable, personal
social network
webs of social relationships that link individuals or groups to one another
On a social network map, the points are called ________ and the lines are called __________
nodes, links
instrumental support
money and service given to you by family and friends etc in your social networks
formal organizations
groups whose activities are rationally designed to achieve specific goals. Most likely to develop from secondary groups
higher participants
members of an organization that exercise power over the lower participants so that the latter will help the organization achieve its goals (the administration)
lower participants
members of an organization that are subject to the exercise of power of higher participants so that they can help the organization achieve its goals
Three kinds of power (by higher participants):
1. coercive power-use of physical force
2. remunerative power- use of material awards such as money
3. normative power- use of moral persuasion, prestige of a leader, or promise of social acceptance
Three kinds of involvement (by lower participants):
1. alienative involvement- in which they do not support the organization's goals
2. calculative involvement- in which they are moderately supportive
3. moral- in which they strongly support the organization
examples of coercive organizations
prisons, concentration camps, and custodial psychiatric hospital; involvement is alienative (they're prisoners)
Three most common types of organizations:
1. Coercive organizations- coercive power and alientative participation
2. Utilitarian organizations- remunerative power and calculative involvement
3. Normative organizations- normative power and moral involvement
examples of utilitarian organizations
factories, banks, and other businesses; pay their employees with money; involvement is renumeration because they're in it for the money, generally
examples of normative organizations
churches and political parties; involvement is moral because participants strongly support the group's goals and values
Amitai Etzioni
created typology of formal organizations
functionalist take on maintaining organizations
emphasis on encouraging employees to work harder through scientific management and human relations; organizations are conflict-free and harmonious
conflict-perspective take on maintaining organizations
critical of social inequality as harmful to organizations and emphasize social equality as the key to organizational success
symbolic-interactionist take on maintaining organizations
focus on definitions of the situation in organizations; an organization can succeed if its members share a positive view of the organization, or the Western view of rationality ensures bureaucratic efficiency
scientific management
associated with functionalist perspective; the primary goal of an organization is to maximize efficiency. Maximum efficiency depends on maximum division of labor, close supervision of workers, and an incentive system of piecework wages
Three things maximum efficiency depends on, according to Frederick Taylor:
1. Maximum division of labor (very-maximum; assembly-line style)
2. Close supervision of workers
3. Incentive system of piecework wages
Frederick Taylor
US engineer who published first systematic presentation of scientific management
Elton Mayo
challenged practically all the assumptions of the scientific management theory in the 30s in his human relations theory
Human relations theory
productivity depends on social forces, especially the informal relations among workers
What maximum efficiency depends on, according to Elton Mayo:
informal organizations between workers within the formal organization- social relationships
informal organization
group formed by the informal relationships among members of an organization
collectivist model
in collectivist organizations, power moves not from the top-down but from the bottom-up. Influenced by Marx and the conflict perspective
examples of collectivist organizations in the United States
some 5,000 so-called alternative institutions established during the 1970s- free schools, medical clinics, legal collectives, food cooperatives, communes, and cooperative businesses collectively owned and managed with no hierarchy of authority
quality circles
small groups of employees within a company that work together as equals
participatory democracy
open-door policy, whereby employees report directly to top management
feminist model
calls for not just getting everyone to work together as equals but for emotional support from one's coworkers, as typically exists in a group of close friends
cultural theories (symbolic interactionist)
emphasize how organizational member's beliefs influence their behavior in the organization
interpretive theories (symbolic interactionist)
focuses on the individual's perspective on life in organizations
hermeneutic theories
how how interpretations of the meanings of organizational documents influence member's interactions
symbolic interactionist perspective:
corporate culture consists of members' shared definitions of what the organization is like and therefore significantly affect what goes on in the organization
a modern Western organization defined as being rational in achieving its goal efficiently (a planned, objective, unified method based on abstract rules)
Max Weber's term for the process of replacing subjective, spontaneous, informal, and diverse ways of doing things with a planned, objective, unified method based on abstract rules
Max Weber
coined the term "rationalization" and studied bureaucracy
normative organizational theories
theories that suggest what we should do to achieve our goals
Weber's theory of bureaucracy
portrays bureaucracy as the embodiment of the Western-or the male- definition of rationality as the proper and effective way to run an organization
Parkinson's law
"Work expands to fill the time available for its completion."
C. Northcote Parkinson was the author of ______'s ______ and believed that it is in the nature of a bureaucracy to grow by ____ % a year
Parkinson's law, 6% per year