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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the two key questions when studying social change?
What factors caused the change? What are the Consequences of that change for social life?
Fill in the blank
More often than not change results from a _______ __ _______
sequence of events
What are the two categories of innovations?
Basic innovations and Improving innovations
what are basic innovations?
revolutionary, unprecedented, or groundbreaking innovations
Name two technological innovations that are responsible for the information explosion?
Computers and telecommunications
What is the information explosion?
The information explosion puts the individual at the center of information. Innovations have made possible the distribution of large quantities of printed, visual, and spoken information by making it easier to create, print, and retrive it.
What are the consequences to the information explosion?
There is such a large quantity of data that a user must sift through it to find valid information. Since publications now have to compete they are distorting and exaggerating information to catch our eye.
Who is the sociologist associated with the information explosion
Orrin Klapp
Who maintained that once an innvation has been invented it becomes part of the cultural base?
Leslie White
Fill in the Blank:
The number of innovations in the cultural base increases __________.
What according to White must happen before a new invention can occur?
The cultural base must be large enough to support it: It needs the ideas, materials and inventions that lead up to it.
What is a technological determinst?
Someone who believes that human beings have no free will and are controlled entirely by their material innovations
What theory is Ogburn most known for?
Cultural lag
Explain cultural lag
Cultural lag is a situation in which adaptive cultural fails to adjust to material innovations in necessary ways
Fill in the blanks:
According to Ogburn, If people have the power to create material innovatons then they also have the power to _______, ______, ________, or ________ thier use
If people have the power to create material innovations then they also have the power to destroy, ban, regulate, or modify thier use
Who argues that some of the most significant scientific advances have been made when someone breaks away from or challenges prevailing paradigms?
Thomas Kuhn
When does a scientific revolution occur?
When enough people in a community break away from an old paradigm and change their thinking and research to favor the incompatable new paradigm
Who argues that conflict will always exsist if only because we never achieve a perfect balence between what people view as their just due and what is alloted to them?
Lewis Coser
When does conflict occur?
When a group takes action to increase its share of control over wealth, power, prestige, or some other valued resources and thier demands are resisted by those benefitting from the current situation
What is the Cold War?
The name given to the political tension and military rivalry between the US and The former Soviet Union.
What did the arms race of the Cold war consist of?
Both the US and former Soviet Union competed to match and surpass each others advances in the quantity and technological quality of weapons.
Why did the Cold War Arms Race exist?
To control the spread of the other side's political and economic sytems.
Why did the US place their scientists throughout the country to do research for the Cold War?
So that if one location was bombed the others could continue working.
What was the Internet first called?
ARPANET-Advanced Research Projects Agency
What was the Internet designed to do?
Link four universities in a such a way that each could transfer information to the others, and effciently share information without central control.
Immanual Wallerstien is most frequently assiociated wiyth what?
The World System Theory.
What conditions do a social movement depend on?
1. An actual or imagined condition that enough people find objectionable
2. The shared belief that something needs to be done about the condition
3.Organized effortt to gain supporters and define a strategy for addressing the problem
What are the four types of social movements?
Regressive, reformist, revolutionary and counter-revolutionary.
Who outlined a three stage model of conflict?
Ralf Dahrendorf
breifly explain model of conflict?
There are two groups those with power and those without. Those with power wish to preserve it, those without wish to change it. When those without power get the change to communicate they will organize, at the same time those with power usually try to censor information. Finally those seeking change enter into conflict with those in power.