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### 38 Cards in this Set

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 Objectivity the principle stating that scientists are expected to prevent their personal biases from influencing the interpretation of their results Verifiability a principle of science by which any given piece of research can be duplicated by other scientists Multiple causation the idea that an event occurs as a result of several factors operating in combination Variable something that occurs in different degrees among individuals, groups, objects and events Quantitative variable a variable that can be measured and given a numerical value Qualitative variable a variable that consists of variation in kind rather than in number Independent variable variable that causes something to happen Dependent variable variable in which a change can be observed Intervening variable variable that influences the relationship between an independent variable and a dependent variable Correlation statistical measure in which a change in one variable is associated with a change in another variable Positive correlation statistical measure in which the independent and dependent variables change in the same direction Negative correlation statistical measure in which the independent and dependent variables change in opposite directions Spurious correlation an apparent relationship between two variables that is actually produced by a third variable that affects both of the original two variables Experiment laboratory procedure that attempts to eliminate all possible contaminating influences on the variables being studied Experimental group group in an experiment exposed to the experimental variable Control group group in an experiment that is not exposed to the experimental variable Matching process in which participants in an experiment are matched in pairs according to all factors thought to affect the relationship being investigated Randomization process by which subjects are assigned to the experimental or control group on a random or chance basis Survey research method in which people are asked to answer a series of questions Population all those people with the characteristics the researcher wants to study within the context of a particular research question Sample a limited number of cases drawn from a population Random sample a sample selected on the basis of chance so that each member of a population has an equal opportunity of being selected Stratified random sample a sample drawn from a population that has been divided into categories such as sex, race or age (the sample is selected at random from each category) Questionnaire a written set of questions participants fill out by themselves Interview a set of questions asked by a trained interviewer Closed-ended questions questions a person must answer by choosing from a limited, predetermined set of responses Open-ended questions questions a person must answer in his/her own words Secondary analysis the use of information already collected by someone else for another purpose Field research a research approach for studying aspects of social life that cannot be measured quantitatively and that are best understood within a natural setting Case study a thorough, recorded investigation of a small group, incident, or community Participant observation this type of field research technique in which a researcher becomes a member of the group being studied Subjective approach a research method in which the aim is to understand some aspect of social reality through the study of the subjective interpretations of the participants themselves Ethnomethodology the study of the processes people develop and use in understanding the routine behavior expected of themselves and others in everyday life Hypothesis a tentative, testable statement of a relationship between particular variables Operational definitions a definition of an abstract concept in terms of simpler, observable procedures Reliability the ability of a measurement technique to yield consistent results Validity the ability of a measurement technique to actually measure what it is designed to become Replication the duplication of the same study to ascertain its accuracy