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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the principle stating that scientists are expected to prevent their personal biases from influencing the interpretation of their results
a principle of science by which any given piece of research can be duplicated by other scientists
Multiple causation
the idea that an event occurs as a result of several factors operating in combination
something that occurs in different degrees among individuals, groups, objects and events
Quantitative variable
a variable that can be measured and given a numerical value
Qualitative variable
a variable that consists of variation in kind rather than in number
Independent variable
variable that causes something to happen
Dependent variable
variable in which a change can be observed
Intervening variable
variable that influences the relationship between an independent variable and a dependent variable
statistical measure in which a change in one variable is associated with a change in another variable
Positive correlation
statistical measure in which the independent and dependent variables change in the same direction
Negative correlation
statistical measure in which the independent and dependent variables change in opposite directions
Spurious correlation
an apparent relationship between two variables that is actually produced by a third variable that affects both of the original two variables
laboratory procedure that attempts to eliminate all possible contaminating influences on the variables being studied
Experimental group
group in an experiment exposed to the experimental variable
Control group
group in an experiment that is not exposed to the experimental variable
process in which participants in an experiment are matched in pairs according to all factors thought to affect the relationship being investigated
process by which subjects are assigned to the experimental or control group on a random or chance basis
research method in which people are asked to answer a series of questions
all those people with the characteristics the researcher wants to study within the context of a particular research question
a limited number of cases drawn from a population
Random sample
a sample selected on the basis of chance so that each member of a population has an equal opportunity of being selected
Stratified random sample
a sample drawn from a population that has been divided into categories such as sex, race or age (the sample is selected at random from each category)
a written set of questions participants fill out by themselves
a set of questions asked by a trained interviewer
Closed-ended questions
questions a person must answer by choosing from a limited, predetermined set of responses
Open-ended questions
questions a person must answer in his/her own words
Secondary analysis
the use of information already collected by someone else for another purpose
Field research
a research approach for studying aspects of social life that cannot be measured quantitatively and that are best understood within a natural setting
Case study
a thorough, recorded investigation of a small group, incident, or community
Participant observation
this type of field research technique in which a researcher becomes a member of the group being studied
Subjective approach
a research method in which the aim is to understand some aspect of social reality through the study of the subjective interpretations of the participants themselves
the study of the processes people develop and use in understanding the routine behavior expected of themselves and others in everyday life
a tentative, testable statement of a relationship between particular variables
Operational definitions
a definition of an abstract concept in terms of simpler, observable procedures
the ability of a measurement technique to yield consistent results
the ability of a measurement technique to actually measure what it is designed to become
the duplication of the same study to ascertain its accuracy