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26 Cards in this Set

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What is Cultural Diffusion?
The spread of cultural characteristics from one group to another.
What is culture shock?
The disorientation that people experience when they come in contact with a fundamentally different culture and can no longer depend on their taken-for-granted assumpytions about life.
What is New Technology?
The emerging technologies of an era that have a significant impact on social life.
What are values?
The standards by which people define what is desirable or undesirable; good or bad, beautiful or ugly.
What is Pluralistic Society?
A society made up of many different groups
What are Norms?
The expectations or rules of behavior that develop out of values
What are the core values?
1. Achievement & Success
2. Individualism
3. Activity & work
4. Efficiency & Practicality
5. Science & Technology
6. Progress
7. Material Comfort
8. Humanitarianism
9. Freedom
10. Democracy
11. Equality
12. Racisim & group superiorty
13. Education
14. Religiosity
15. Romantic Love
What are sanctions?
Expressions of approval or disapproval given to people for upholding or violating Norms
What is the difference between real and ideal culture?
Ideal Culture are the values, norms and goals that a group considers ideal; Real Culture are the norms and values that people actually follow
What are negative sanctions?
An expression of disapproval for breaking a norm, ranging from a mild, informal reaction such as a frown to a formal prision sentence or an execution.
What is a value contradiction?
Values that contradict one another; to follow the one means to come into conflict with the other.
What is Positive Sanctions?
A reward given for following Norms, ranging from a smile to a prize.
What is cultural lag?
William Ogburn's term for a situation in which Nonmaterial Culture lags behind changes in Material Culture.
What are Folkways?
Norms that are not strictly enforced.
What is technology?
In it's narrow sense, tools; It's broader sense includes the skills or procedures necessary to make and use those tools
What are Mores?
Norms that are strictly enforced because they are thought essential to core values
What are cultural Universals?
A value, Norm, or other cultural trait that is found in every group.
What is ethnocentrism?
The use of one's own culture as a yardstick for judging the ways of other individuals or societies, generally leading to a negative evaluation of their values, norms and behaviors.
What is Cultural Leveling?
The process by which cultures become simular to one another, and especially by which Western Industrial Culture is imported and diffused into industrializing nations.
What are the componets of symbolic culture?
1. Symbol- something to which people attach meaning and then use to communicate with others.
2. Gestures- The way in which people use their bodies to communicate with one another.
3. Language - A system of symbols that can be combined in a infinate number of ways and can represent not only objects but also abstract thought.
What is a value cluster?
A seriers of interrelated values that together form a larger whole.
What is cultural relativisim?
Not judging a culture, but trying to understand it on its own terms.
What is the difference between Sub and Counter Cultures?
A subculture is a group whose values and related behaviors distinguish it's members from a general culture. A counterculture holds values that stand in opposition to those of the dominate culture.
What is the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis?
Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf's hypothesis that language creats ways of thinking and perceiving.
What is Culture?
The language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors and even material objects that are passed from one generation to the next.
What are the types of culture?
Material culture and Nonmaterial culture, Ideal culture and real culture