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41 Cards in this Set

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The logical, systematic methods by which knowledge is acquired as well as the actual body of knowledge produced by these methods.
Science
Is less advanced than natural sciences.
Sociology
Study mental processes such as emotions, memory, cognition and perception.
Psychologists
Studies political power, political processes, and governmental systems.
Political science
The study of human evolution and culture.
Anthropology
A French philosopher who is often called the "founder of sociology".
Auguste Comte
Considered one of the greatest English social thinkers of his time. An advocate of social Darwinism.
Herbert Spencer
German born and was the most important figure in the 19th century. Wrote works about philosophy, economics, political science, and history.
Karl Marx
French sociologist who was a strong influence to the discipline of sociology. Considered problem of social order.
Emile Durkheim
German sociologist considered the most influential individual in Western Sociology.
Max Weber
Statement that organizes a set of concepts in a significant and relevant way by explaining the relationship among them.
Theory
Social order and stability.

One of 3 theoretical perspectives.
Functionalist
Social Change.

One of 3 theoretical perspectives.
Conflict theory
Everyday experiences.

One of 3 theoretical perspectives.
Interactionist
A consequence that is obvious.
Manifest Function
An unintended or unrealized consequence.
Latent Function
A meaningful representation of something.
Symbol
Spenser, Durkheim, Parsons, Merton are all?
Functionalist
Marx, Wright Mills, Dahrendorf, Collins are all?
Conflict
Weber, Herbert Mead, Goffman, Homans are all?
Interactionist
Research done just for the sake of knowledge.
Basic Research
Research conducted to provide solutions to immediat, practical problems.
Applied Research
A system of rules, procedures, and principles that guides scientific investigation.
Methodology
Direct observance using the human senses (sight and hearing).
Empirical Research
Data collection to determine why and what is happening to whom.
Descriptive Studies
Answers why and how things happen.
Explanatory Studies
A generalization. A way to label similar things.
Sociological Concept
Any charachteristic that can change or differ from time to time, individual to individual, or place to place.
Variable
When one variable is found to influence another.
Causation
When one variable influences another variable.
Independent Variable
The variable that is affected.
Dependent Variable
Whether there is a relationship between the variable that occurs with any regularity.
Correlation
A correlation that is merely coincidental and does not imply any causal relationship.
Spurious Correlation
Type of applied research. Can be conducted in lab or field. Studies relationship between 2 variables under controlled conditions.
Social Experiments
The group exposed to the independent variable.
Experimental group
Group exposed to all conditions except the independent variable.
Control Group
Subject's assumptions about what the experimenter is trying to discover may contaminate the experiment.
Hawthorne Effect
Obtains info in a standard form about attitudes, behaviors, or other characteristics of a population.
Survey
Examines a specified group, event or social process.
Observational Studies
Form of field observation. Used either after or during an event.
Case Study
What are the parts of the Model for Sociological Research?
Define the problem, Review the literature, Develop the hypothesis, Research design, Data collection, Analyzing data, Draw a conclusion.