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125 Cards in this Set

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the ability to see the relationship between events in personal life and events in your society (look at stuff in own life and how connects with society)
social imagination
study of human social life groups and societies focusing on the modern world.
sociology
2 way process by which we shape our social world and by which we are shaped by society
structuration
BIG, study large social structures without referring 2 the interaction of people involved
macro structuration
small, study interactions between individuals
Ex: personal space
micro structuration
person that found sociology and decided what should be studied:refers 2 stability and order Social dynamics
Auguste Cante
refers 2 social change
social dynamics
refers 2 stability and order
social statics
person that believed strongly in the feminist theory,real activist, pushed for rights of women, pushed to abolish slavery
Harriet Martineau
person famous for social Darwinism (socially inferior)
Herbert Spencer
person that was founder of conflict theory, famous for critique of capitalism (bourgeiosoe/prolatarite)
Karl Marx
people who own means of productions/ alot of power ("haves")
bourgeiosoe
people whom sell labor for wages ("have-nots")
prolatarite
person responsible for functionalism, sociological study of suicide,pre-industrial societies vs. industrialized society
Emil Durkheim
characterized by mechanical solidarity, ppl are interdependent because they share similar values.
pre-industrial society
characterized by organic solidary, ppl are interdependent because they rely on each other economically.
industrialized society
person who came up with term verstehen (meaning empathy)
Max Weber
Person who worked mainly with poor, elderly, and immigrants
Jane Adams
Person known for studying the structure of black communities, came up with concept of "double consciousness"
W.E.B. DuBois
a way of talking about identity through the lens of the particular experiences of African Americans
double consciousness
Theoretical perspective in which parts of society are interrelated just like human body, so change in 1 part of society leads 2 changes in other parts. (Associated with Durkheim)
functionalism
functions that are intended and recognized (main function)
Manifest function
fuctions usually unrecognized (beneath surface)
latent function
theorectical perspective in which interaction between individuals is based on mutually understand symbols. (-MICRO)(Associated with Mead and Weber)
symbolic interactionism
theoretical perspective in which people change the way they act based on who they’re around. (Associated with Goffman)
impression management (dramaturgy)
Theoretical perspective which is symbolic, look at how interactions are gender. Macro + Micro (Associated with Martianeu)
Feminist Theory
the underlying regularities or patterns in how people behave and in their relationships with one another
social structure
the growth of world interdependence
globalization
What is the purpose of doing socialogical research?
to challenge our commonly held beliefs and to hope it will help us solve social research.
scientists interpret their data solely on basis of merit and they do not let their personal bias affect their work. (Don’t let anything affect such as personal opinions.)
objectivity
How do u increase objectivity?
publicly stating views(always tell audience which theory ur coming from)and verifiability.
process in which u repeat studies that have already been done by other scientists.
verifiability
What are the steps in a research process?
-define the problem
- review the literature
- formulate a hypothesis
-select a research design
-carry out the research
-interpret your results
-report the research findings
step in research process in which u select a topic for research
define the problem
step in research process in which u familiarize urself with existing research on the topic
review the literature
step in research process in which u decide what u intend to test and the relationship between the variables
formulate a hypothesis
step in researc process in which u choose 1 or more research mothods such as a survey or observation or experiment
select a research design
step in research process in which u collect ur data and record information
carry out the research
step in research process in which u work out the implications of the data u collect
interpret your results
step in research process in which u deicded the significance of findings and how they relate 2 previous findings
report the research findings
events occur in non-random predictable ways and one event leads to another.
causation
a tentative statement about the relationship between phenomena.
hypothesis
What is the independent variable and dependent variable?
the Independent variable causes the dependent variable
when a change in one variable is associated with a change in the other variable.
correlation
when ur independent variable and dependent variable change in the same direction.
positive correlation
when ur independent variable and dependent variable go in opposite directions.
negative correlation
when the relationship u see between 2 variables is actually produced by a 3rd variable. (actually something else making it look like there is a relationship).
spurious correlation
In sociological experiements, for experiements, who controls the environment tightly
the researcher
What is the most common form of research?
surveys
Questions in surveys that u can only answer with limited answers such as "yes/no/don't know"
fixed-choice questions
Questions in surveys that allow u 2 express more freely and answer in ur own words.
open-ended questions
true or false, fieldwork is qualitative?
true
true or false,surveys are qualitative?
false, quantitative
interviewing, researcher takes part in activities or groups being studied
participant observation
biographical account based on interviews and documents
life histories
studies events that took place in the past
historical research
compares data from different places
comparative research
analyzes images, especially media such as magazines, television programs, etc.
content analysis
what is an advantage to using the ethonography research method?
generates more in-depth information than other methods.
what is a disadvantage to using the ethnography research method?
can only be used to study relatively small groups or communities.
What are the advantages to using surveys as a research method?
make more efficient collection of data on large nunmbers of individuals and they allow for precise comparisons to be made
what are the disadvantages to using surveys as a research method?
answers can be superficial and responses may be what people profess to believe rather than what they actually believe.
What are the advantages to using experiments as a research method?
influence of specific variables can be controlled by investigator and are usually easier to repeat
what are the disadvantages of using experiments as a research method?
many aspects of social life cant be brought into the laboratory, and responses of ppl studied maybe affected by experimental situation
Person that did teacher/learner shocking experiment known as "U must continue with experiment"
Milgram
Research question that asks "what happened?"
factual question
Research question that asks "Did this happen everywhere?"
comparative question
Research question that asks "has this happened over time?"
developmental question
process in which we use multiple research methods to get more efficient results
triangulation
refers to material objects as well as patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving that are passed from generation to generation among members of society.
culture
type of culture in which anything you can touch, taste, see, feel (sensory)
material culture
type of culture that refers to beliefs, customs, values, history, norms
non-material culture
the study of the biological basis of human behavior
sociobiologist
What are the 2 criticisms of the sociobiology perspective?
cultural diversity and the cerebral cortex
part of brain that allows u 2 think creatively so we can think beyond biology
cerebral cortex
refers to culture's standards of appropriate behaviors
normative
rules that define appropriate and inappropriate behaviors
"norms"
customary ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving that lack moral overtones. (things done out of habit) if violated, nothing major will happen to u
folkways
norms of huge moral significance. If violated you are met w/ extremely strong disapproval
mores
formally defines norms and enforced by designated people
laws
rewards or punishments, ways to enforce norms
sanctions
for a sanction neg/pos an only be given by officials (ex: arrested, honorable recognition)
formal sanction
sanctions given by anyone (ex:clapping after a performance or booing)
informal sanctions
cultural principles that most people in society accept
values
dimension of culture that refers to a cultures ideas, knowledge, and beliefs
cognitive
dimension of culture in which u can pick up with senses (food,clothing, car etc.)
material
true/false the same physical object can have diff. purposes in diff. cultures
true
guidelines we claim to accept.
ideal culture
actual behavior patterns
real culture
group thats part of the dominant culture but differs in some respect
subculture
A subculture that is deliberately opposed to certain aspects of the dominant culture. (ex:hippies, vegans)
counterculture
When you judge others in terms of your own culture
ethnocentrism
Values, norms, beliefs, and attitudes are not themselves right or wrong, but rather they should be judged in their own cultural context.
cultural relativism
Person that says Pre-Industrial is called Gemeinschaft: community and When talks about industrialization, calls it Gesellschaft: society
Tonnies
Person that when talks about pre-industrial society he calls it mechanical solidarity and talking about industrial he calls it organic solidarity
Durkheim
Person that says Pre-industrial societies are known as folk societies and Industrial societies are known as urban societies
Redfield
hypothesis that argues that the language we use influences our perceptions of the world
linguistic relatively hypothesis
process of learning to participate in group life through the acquisition of culture
socialization
When does socialization occur?
begins at birth and continues through lifetime.
Organized complex of attitudes, beliefs, values, and behaviors associated with an individual
personality
Personality is formed through what?
socialization
an image of yourself as an entity separate from other people. (knowing that u are your own person)
self-concept
person who came up with term "looking glass shelf"
Cooley
term used to describe kids learn to judge themselves in terms of how they imagine other will react to them
looking glass shelf
the people we use most often as mirrors. (people whose opinions usually matter to us)
significant others
Meads opinion in which part of the self that is spontaneous and creative.
the "I"
Meads opinion in which part of self that is formed through socialization
the "ME"
taking the viewpoint of another individual and then respond to yourself from that imagined viewpoint. Kids go thru diff. stages
Role taking
stage of role playing that occurs usually younger than 3 yrs of age. Kids copy behavior of significant other without comprehending.
imitation stage
role playing stage takes place between 3 and 6 yrs old. Children take on the role of individuals one at a time.
Play stage
Role playing stage that takes place usually between 6 and 7. Children take on the roles of several people all at the same time.
Game stage
conception of the norms, values, and beliefs of your society. (like your conscience)
Generalized other
people are separated from the rest of society. (Associated with Goffman)
total institutions
when you abandon your old way of life. (Give up old norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors)
desocialization
adopt a new way of life. (adopt new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors)
resocialization
anticipating that a change is going to happen in your life.
anticipatory socialization
groups or social context in which processes of socialization occur.
agents/agencies
position u occupy in a social structure.
status
statuses that are assigned at birth (characteristics that u did not get 2 pick such as race, sex, hereditary, social class)
ascribed statuses
statuses u achieve during your lifetime (education, social class, career/job)
achieved statuses
refers to all the statuses u occupy at one time.
status set
most important statuses (influences most areas in your life)
master statuses
Roles of one status class with the roles of another status.
role conflict
Roles within a single status clash
role strain
How do u handle role strain?
-prioritize
-delegate roles (try 2 get some ppl 2 do some stuff 4 u)