Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Social Darwinism
Survival of the Fittest
Herbert Spencer
Structural Functionalism
Macro. How is society structured and organized. What is the function?
Conflict Theory
Is there equality? Why isn't there equality?
Symbolic Interactionalism
Micro. Interactions between individuals. influenced by others. present an image. face to face.
language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors, passed from one generation to the next. culture is taken for granted.
Culture Shock
feeling disoriented in a culture and place that is different of your own.
tendency to use own groups way of doing things as yardstick for judging others.
Cultural Relativiam
looking at how the elements of a culture fit together without judging superiority.
Language allows
culture to exist, human experiences to be shared.
Postive Sanctions
showing approval to people who follow the rules. negative sanctions show disapproval.
norms strictly enforced
so strongly ingrained the thought of doing it is unimagined.
US values
achievement, individualism, activity, efficiency, science, progress, material comfort, humanitarianism, freedom, democracy, equality, group superiority, ediucation, love, religion
Ideal Culture
values that are considered worth aspiring to. how we want it to be.
Real Culture
how our culture really is
Cultural Lag
not all parts of a culture changes at the same time. non-material lags the material.
Culture Diffusion
groups are open to change in their culture from others.
Cultural Leveling
culture becomes similar to another.
Nature vs Nurture
how much of peoples characteristics come from genetics or interactions with others.
Harry and Margaret Harlow
monkey experiment.monkey prefers terrycloth mom more than wire. through human contact people learn to be a member of the community
Cooley and the Looking Glass Self
our sense of self develops from interactions with others.
we imagine how we appear to others
interpret others reactions
develop a self-concept.
begins in childhood, everlasting process
Herbert Mead. play is important in development
Jean Piaget
sensorimotor. touching feeling
preoperational use symbols
concrete operational reasoning abilities
formal operational abstract thinking
Personality. Subconscious.
ID= inborn drive for self-gratification
ego= who we want to be balanced
superego- culture within us. norms and values. show feelings of guilt and pride. conscious
Agents of socialization
people and groups that influence us
1. family 2. religion 3. Day Care 4. Peer group
learning new norms values attitudes to match their new situation of life. army prison
any violation of norms. diff cultures have diff norms.
Crime and Stigma
Crime- violation of a written rule
Stigma- characteristics that discredit people
How Norms Make Social Life Possible
make behavior predictable, play basic roles assigned to us bring social order
Explanation of Deviance
Psychologist, Sociologists, Biological
Psych- look for answers within us
Biology- genetic. XXY intelligence
Sociologist- study external forces like socialization, class
Differential Association Theory
learn deviance mostly by the different groups we associate with
Conflict Theory on Deviance
inner controls- wrong from right, punish
outter- family, friends
Labeling Theory
signifigance of names and reputations we are given. stick with us forever
Deviance contribute to social order
1. clarifies moral boundaries and affirms norms
2. promotes social unity
3. promote social change
Strain Theory
Robert Merton. people who experience strain are likely out of place. hard to achieve success so they turn to deviance to find success.
4 Types of Deviants
1. Innovators- accept norms but illegal ways. drug dealing
2. Ritualism- discouraged, give up,
3. Retreatism- reject cultural and institutionalized goals. alcohol drugs
4. Rebellion- reject both, society is corrupt. try to change it
Street Crime
not as many opps for the poor. Hustler
White-collar crime
more privelaged. fraud bribery. high status commit.
hate crime
crime motivated by bias, oritentation, religion
victimless crime
gambling, prostitution, drug taking
Conflict Perspective
"Justice for all"
inconsistent, power elite control legal system.
Social Structure. What does it do?
framework society already laid out for us at birth. guides our behavior, help achieve goals, meet survival needs
Social Class
people who share income, education, and jobs
Social Status
Ascribed? Achieved?
position that you occupy.
Ascribed-sex race ethnicity, age.(birth)
Achieved- voluntary accomplished. positve or negative.
behavior, obligations, attached to a status. occupy a status , play a role.
people who interact regularly. share similar norms and values
Social Institutions
each society develops to meet basic survival needs
family, education, economy, religion, political system.
Social Relationship
patterned social interaction. thorugh culture
Gemeinschaft Society
Gesellschaft Society
Intimate community. family bonds and ties.
Impersonal Association.
Primary Group
family and friends. stable, well-being
Secondary Group
larger, formal, based on specific interst.
Iron Law of Oligarchy
how organizations come to be dominated by a small elite
groups we feel loyal to
feel antagonisms cause dysfunction
what they have
formal organization. for efficiency.
They have... hierarchy, division of labor, written rules, impersonality
Dysfunctions: red tape. a rule is a rule. alienation
Role Conflict
had to be two diff roles at once. working mother.
Narcirema Article
American culture, describing how superficial. how others may interpret our culture. dentist, paying people.
India's Sacred Cow
spiritual value. helps life together. provides nutrients. manure for cooking. farmland would never be same again if they killed a cow
Class Divided
Jane Elliot. separated her class in blue eye brown eye. one being superior. given roles. problems arose. Social forces affect human behavior!!!