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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are some effects of the parents' social class?
Health, education, working life, crime and justice
What is income and wealth?
Income: the amount of money an individual or family receives a year.
Wealth: the total value of the assets owned.
What is the Matthew Effect?
The notion that people who have wealth, fame, or other scarce social goods find it easier to accumulate more of these compared to those who have none of these goods.
What are some cultural explanations of inequality?
People in different social classes have different morals and beliefs.

The values, beliefs,and norms of lower classes are not compatible with success in society.
What is Oscar Lewis' "Culture of Poverty"?
Poverty tends to perpetuate itself from generation to generation.
What are some structural explanations of inequality?
The differences in the values are more consequences of poverty than causes.
What is blaming the victim?
Unjustly stating or believing that the cause of a problem resides in the individuals or groups who experience the problem, when the real source of the problem is actually within the social environment.
What is tracking in schools?
Ability grouping that has a nevative effect on the achievement of lower track groups, a negligible effect on middle groups, and a weak to modest positive effect on higher track students.
What is the pygmalion effect?
The effect of teachers' expectations on students' performance.
Why is a dollar not always a dollar?
Because education pays higher dividents for some people than for others. Even if you have money in hand, it will buy more or less depending on who you are.
What is prejudice?
A negative and persistent judgement based on scant or incorrect information about people in a group.
What are stereotypes?
Oversimplified generalized images about members of a particular group.
What did Robert Merton say about discrimination?
Just as not all people are prejudiced practice discrimination, not all people who practice discrimination are prejudiced.
What is individual discrimination?
Occurs when an individual discriminates against another.
What is ethnicity?
Has to do with shared cultural heritage.
What did Margaret Mead say?
It is a mistake to confuse sex, which is biological, with gender, which is social.
What is stratification?
The social hierarchy.
What are legitimating rationales?
Widely accepted beliefs that inequalities are right.
What is transmigration?
If you were good in a previous life, you will be higher up. No movement. Reincarnation. Karma is fate. Dharma is caste-based duties. Varna, jatis are grades of being. Brahman, kshatraiyas, etc are stratification system roles.
What is the estate stystem?
Place in life is predetermined by God at birth. 3 estates determine standing.
1) Aristocracy
2) Clergy
3) Peasants
Villiens are peasants, serfs.
What is the class system?
You can be as high up as you work to be. Sometimes ascribed; mostly achieved. Bourgeouisie are the shopkeepers who owned means of production; Proletariat are the workers.
What is the theory of life style versus life chances?
Life chances is the access to important things such as jobs and housing.
What is manumission?
Under certain circumstances, slaves can be made free.
What is social mobility?
Movement in the system.
Horizontal: in the same stratum
Vertical: up and down in a system
Intergenerational: across generations
Intragenerational: in one lifetime
What are open systems versus closed systems?
Open is lots of movement, closed is no movement whatsoever.