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48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Gender and Mass Media
Forms of communications that are directed to large audiences.
Television and movies: reinforce sterotypes of the sexes
Video games: Reflect cutting edge change in sex roles
Agents of Socilization
people and groups that influence our orientations to life- our self concept, emotions, attitudes, and behaviors. Family, neighborhood, religion, daycare, school and peer groups and workplace
Language (5 things language does)
A system of symbols that can be combined in an infinite number of ways and can represent not only objects but also abstract thought.
1- enables our experiences to be cumulative.
2- have a shared past
3- have a shared future
4- shared perspective
5- to be complex, shared, goal directed behavior
Cultural Relativism
understand/view/judge based on that cultural standards
a statement about reality that people accept as true. Based on logive, faith, other people's opinions and traditions.
Norms (type of norms)
standard of acceptable behavior
Folkway- traditionall done-break folkway-not a big deal
Mores- vital/morality-right/wrong
Law- A norm that is formely adopted.
Taboos- unthinkable, off-limits, NOrm so engraved that the though of thinking about it makes u sick.
the use of ones own cultues as a yardstick for judging the ways of other individuals or societies generally leading to a negative evaluation of their values, norms and behaviors
Transitional Adulthood
the period follong adolscence during which young adults gradually ease into adult responsibilities
Emerging Values
Leisure, self-fulfillment, physical fitness, youthfulness, concern the environment
Gender and Peers
Peer group: individuals of roughly the same age who are linked by common interests. Friends, classmates, and the kid in the neighborhood
Anticipatory socilization
learning to play a role before entering it because on anticipates a future role, one learns part of it now
Looking Glass Self
a term coined by Charles Horton Cooley to refer to the process by which ourselfs develops through internalizing others reactions to us
Sapir Whorf Hypothesis
Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorfs hypothesis that language creates ways of thinking and perceiving
the ways in which people use their bodies to communicate with one another
people who share a culture and a territory
Culture Shock
the disorientation that people experience when they come in contact with a funamentally different culture and can no longer depend on their taken for granted assumptions about life
Gender in the Family
Parents are the first significant who teach us our part in this symbolic vision. Given different kind of toys because of their gender
the process of learning new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors
Mead and Role Taking
George Herbert Mead
-Mead believes self is the product of more than peoples perceptions of other people's reactions to them
-Mead believe that people read complicated situations before taking whatever actions are judged most appropriate
Cultural Lag
Ogburns term for human behavior lagging behind technological innovations
Symbol/Symbolic Culture
Symbol: something to which people attach meanings and then use them to communicate with others.
Symbolic Culture: another term for nonmaterial culture
unthinkinable, off-limits, Morm so engraved that the thought of thinking about it makes u sick
a group whose values, beliefs, and related behaviors place its members in opposition to the broader culture
US Values
1. Achievenment and Success
2. Individualism
3. Activity and work
4. Efficiency and practicality
5. Science and Technology
6. Progess
7. Material Comfort
8. Humanitariansim
9. Freedom
10. Democracy
11. Equality
12. Racism and group superiority
13. Education
14. Religiosity
15. Romantic love
Gender Socialization
the ways in which society sets children onto different courses in life because they are male or female
Life Course
the stages of our life as we go from birth to death
Piaget and development of reasoning
Formal Operational Stage (after age of 12) children are now able of abstract thinking
Value Contradiction
values that contradict one another; to follow the one means to come into conflict with the other
Value Cluster
values that fit together
Nonmaterial Culture
(also called symbolic culture) a groups ways of thinking (including its beliefs, values, and other assumptions about the world) and doing (its common patterns of behavior, including language and other forms of interaction)
Cultural Diffusion
the spread of cultural characteristics from one group to another
the values and related behaviors of a group that distinguish its members from the larger culture; a world within a world
Socialization and emotions
Socialization: the process byw chi people learn the characteristic of their group. the knowledge, skills, attitudes. values and actions thoughts appropriate for them
Global Emotions: everyone experiences to basic emotions, anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and suprise
Expressing emotions: Facial expressions are only one way in which we show emotion
Degradation Ceremony
a term coing by Harold Garfinkel to describe an attempt to make the self by stripping away an individuals sel-identity and stamping a new identity in its place
Piaget and Development of Reasoning
Children go through 4 stages as they develop the ability to reason:
Sensorimotor Stage: from birth to age 2-understanding is unlimted to direct contact with the environment-sucking,touching,listening, looking-cannot recognize cause and effect
Preoperational Stage: From 2-7, children develop the ability to use symbols
Concrete Operational: 7-12, can understand numbers, causation, and speed and they are able to take the role of the other and to particpate in team games
in its narrow sense; tools; in broad sense includes the skills or procedures necessary to make and use those tools; a major source of social change
Pluralistic Society
a society made up of many different groups
Material Culture
the material objects that distinguish a group of people, such as their art, buildings, weapons, utensils, machines, hairstyles, clothing and jewelry
Cultural leveling
the process by which cultures become simliar to one another; especially the process by which U.S. Cultuere being exported and diffused into other nations
Cultural Universal
element of culture; the same in all cultures
Freud and development of personality
Id- Freuds term for our inborn basic drives
Ego- Freud's term for a balancing force between the id and the demands of society
Superego: Freuds term for the conscience the norms and values that we have internalized
Total instituion
a place in which people are cut off from the rest of society and are almost totally controlled by the officals who run the place
Sanctions (Positive/Negative)
expression of approval or disapproval given to people for upholding or violating norms
Positive: expresses approval for following a norm
Negative: reflects disapproval for breaking a norm
New Technology
the emerging technology of an era that has a significant impact on social ife
the standards by which people define what is desirable or undesirable, good or bad, beautiful or ugly
the language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors and even material objects that are passed from one generation to the next
Ideal Culture
the ideal values and norms of a person; the goals held out for them
Real Culture
the norms and values that people actually follow