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42 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
bureaucracy
large hierarchical organization governed by formal rules and regulations and having clearly specified work tasks.
de-skilling
Subdivision of low-level jobs into small, highly specified tasks requiring less skilled workers
division of labor
specialization of different people or groups in different tasks, characteristic of most bureaucracies
free-rider problem
tendency for people to refrain from contributing to common good when a resource is available without requiring any personal cost or contribution
hierarchy of authority
ranking of people or tasks in a bureaucracy from those at the top, where there is a great deal of power and authority to those at the bottom, where there is very little power and authority
McDonaldization
The process by which the characterisitcs and principles of the fast food restaurant come to dominate other areas of social life
multinational corporation
company that has manufacturing, production, and marketing divisions in multiple countries
social dilemma
potential for a society's long term ruin because of individual's tendency to pursue their own short-term interests
social structure
Social institutions, organizaions, groups, statuses and roles, values, and norms that add order and predictability to our private lives.
tragedy of the commons
situations in which people acting individually and in their own self interest use up commonly available (but limited) resources, creating disaster for the entire community.
absolute poverty
Inability to afford the minimal requirements for sustaining a reasonably healthy existence
authority
possesion of some status or quality that compels others to obey one's directives or commands.
caste system
stratification system based on heredity with little movement allowed across strata
colonization
process of expanding economic markets by invading and establishing control over a weaker country and its people
competitive individualism
cultural belief that those who succeed in society are those who work the hardest and have the best abilites and that those who suffer dont work hard enough or lack necessary traits or abilities.
culture of poverty-thesis
belief that poor people, resigned to their position in society, develop a unique value structure to deal with their lack of success.
estate system (feudal system)
stratification system in which high-status groups own lan and have power based on birth.
false conciousness
situation in which people in the lower classes come to accept a belief system that harms them; the primary means by which powerful classes in society prevent protest and revolution
lower class (underclass)
in a society stratified by social class, a group of people who work for minimum wage or are chronically unemployed; the "poor"
means of production
land, commercial enterprises, factories, and wealth that form the economic basis of class societies
middle class
In a society statified by social class, a group of people who have an intermediate level of wealth, income, and prestige, such as managers, supervisors, executives and small business owners
near-poor
Individuals or families who earnings are between 100% and 125% of the poverty line
poverty line
Amount of yearly income a family requires to meet its basic needs, according to the federal govt.
poverty rate
percentage of people whose income falls below the poverty line
slavery
economic form of inequality in which some people are the legal property of others
social class
group of people who share a similar economic position in society based on their wealth and income
social mobility
movement of people or gorups from one class to another
socioeconomic status
prestige, honor, respect and lifestyle associated with different positions or groups in society
stratification
ranking system for groups of people that perpetuates unequal awards and life chances in society
upper class
in a society stratified by social class, a group of people who have high income and prestige and who own vast amounts of property and other forms of wealth, such as owners of large corporations, top financiers, rich celebrities, and politicians, amd members of prestigious families
working class
in a society stratified by class, a group of people who have a low level of wealth, income, and prestige, such as industrial and factory workers, clerks and farm and manual laborers.
affirmative action
program designed to seek out members of minority groups for positions from which they had previously been excluded
discrimination
unfair treatment of some social characteristic, such as class, race, ethnicity or sex.
ethnicity
the sense of community that derives from the cultural heritage shared by a category of people with common ancestry
institutional racism
laws, customs, and practices that systematically reflect and produce racial and ethnic inequalities in society, whether or not the individuals maintaining these laws, customs, and practices have racial intentions
personal racism
individual expression of racist attitudes or behaviors
prejudice
rigidly held, unfavorable attitudes, beliefs and feelings about members of a different group, based on social characteristic such as race, ethnicity or sex
race
category of people labeled and treadted as similar because of some common biological traits, such as skin color, texture of hair and shape of eyes
racial transparency
tendency for the race of a society's majority to be so obvious, normative and unremarkable that it becomes, for all intents and purposes, invisible
racism
belief that humans are subdivided into distinct groups that are different in their social behavior and innate capacities and that can be ranked as superior or inferior
stereotype
overgeneralized belief that a certain trait or behavior or attitude characterizes all members of some identifiable group
symbolic racism
form of racism expressed subtly and indirectly through feelings of discomfort, uneasiness and fear, which motivate avoidance rather than blatant discriminization.