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27 Cards in this Set

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The process by which a smaller, less powerful society is able to preserve the major features of its culture even after prolonged contact with a larger, stronger culture.
The process by which the members of a civilization incorporate norms and values from other cultures into their own
The process by which culturally distinct groups in a larger civilization adopt the norms, values, and language of the host civilization and are able to gain equal statuses in its groups and institutions
A cultural complex formed by the identical major cultural features of several societies
A subculture that challenges the accepted norms and values of the larger society and establishes an alternative lifestyle.
satanists would most likely be deemed a counterculture by most Americans
cultural evolution
The process by which successful cultural adaptations are passed down from one generation to the next.
cultural relativity
The recognition that all cultures develop their own ways of dealing with the specific demands of their environments.
All the modes of thought, behavior, and production that are handed down from one generation to the next by means of communicative interaction rather than by genetic transmission.
The tendency to judge other cultures as inferior to one’s own.
Weakly sanctioned norms.
Not shaking hands with someone you are being introduced to by another is an example of a ________ violation in our society.
Undue power or influence.
Ways of thinking that organize human consciousness
Systems of values and norms that the members of a society are expected to believe in and act on without question.
Norms that are written by specialists, collected in codes or manuals of behavior, and interpreted and applied by other specialists.
linguistic-relativity hypothesis
The belief that language determines the possibilities for thought and action in any given culture.
material culture
Patterns of possessing and using the products of culture.
Cell phones, SUVs, and laptops constitute important elements of American ______ ________.
Strongly sanctioned norms.
natural selection
The relative success of organisms with specific genetic mutations in reproducing new generations with the new trait.
normative order
The array of norms that permit a society to achieve relatively peaceful social control.
Specific rules of behavior.
includes taboos and laws.

Even within deviant and criminal groups, there is a moral order.
Rewards and punishments for abiding by or violating norms.
social control
The set of rules and understandings that control the behavior of individuals and groups in a particular culture.
social Darwinism
The notion that people who are more successful at adapting to the environment in which they find themselves are more likely to survive and to have children who will also be successful.
Herbert Spencer
The hypothesis that all human behavior is determined by genetic factors.
The view that given outcomes such as poverty or crime can ultimately be explained by reference to genes relates to ________.
A group of people who hold many of the values and norms of the larger culture but also hold certain beliefs, values, or norms that set them apart from that culture.
when people exhibit some cultural practices that distinguish them from most others within a society.
The products and the norms for using them that are found in a given culture.
The ideas that support or justify norms.