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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
unreliable generalizations about all members of a group that do not recognize the individual differences of the members of that group
Racial Group
a word that is used to describe a group that is set apart because of obvious physical differences
Ethnic group
a word used to categorize all people with a different nationality and heritage and cultural patterns
Functionalist view on racism
serves positive functions such as:
1. causing togetherness of the minority
2. causes a movement against racism
Conflict view on racism

exploitation theory
1. have harmful reprocussions on society
2. it is a way for the white upper class to keep other races from moving up in the world which they view as their own

E.T.: the view that the lower class exploitation is a basic part of capitalistic economic systems
Interactionist view of racism

Contact Hyposthesis
People will bond together if they are forced to

This theory states that interracial contact between people of equal status, who are engaged in a cooperative task will cause them to become less prejudiced and abandon previous stereotypes
Institutional Discrimination
the denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups that results from normal opporations of a society
Gender roles
expectations regarding the proper behavior, attitudes, and activities of males and females
Cross Cultural view of gender roles
in other cultures, Margaret Mead discovered that gender roles were completley reversed and in others were assigned to both sexes
The functionalist view on gender inequality


an emphasis on tasks, a focus on more distant goals, and a concern for the external relationship between one's family and social institutions
-> assigned to men

a concern for maintenance of harmony and the internal emotional affairs of the family
-> assigned to women
Conflict view of gender inequality
seen as the result of an underlying struggle for power between men and women where men have subjugated women
Feminist view on gender inequality
agree with conflict theorists, but are more likely to take a political agenda than the conflict theorists are
The interactionist view of gender inquality
focuses on the everyday workings of men and women

men interrupt converstations more, change topics more, ignore topics chosen by women, minimize the contributions of women more
glass ceiling
an invisible barrier that blocks the promotion of a qualified individual in a work environment because of the individual's gender, race, or ethnicity
second shift
the idea that women work two shifts of work per day because their husbands seldom help with the housework of taking care of the kids, cleaning and cooking
Social institutions
an organized pattern of beliefs and behaviors centered on basic social needs
Functionalist view of social institutions
1. they must replace personnel
2. they must teach new recruits
3. producing and distributing goods and services
4. preserving order
5. providing and maintaining a sense of purpose
Conflict view of social institutions
these theorists believe that major institutions are set up in a way so that they keep the lower class down and maintain the privelages of the upper-class privelaged people
Interactionist view of social institutions
believe that every social institution affects our everyday behavior.

say that our behavior is conditioned by the roles and statuses that we accept
Ascribed status

Achieved status
a social position that has been assigned to someone through birth

a status that is gotten through hard work and education

Class system
hereditary systems of rank, usually religiously dictated, tend to be fixed and immobile

a social ranking based primarily on economic position in which achieved characteristics can influence social mobility
the structured ranking of entire groups of people that perpetuates unequal economic rewards

material assets such as land, stock, and other property

refers to salaries and wages
Karl Marx's view on stratification
believed that there were two main classes, the bourgeoisie (the capitalist class) and the proletarat (the working class) and said that the way the bourg. maximized profit was be exploiting the prolet.

says that this will eventually lead to a deconstruction of the capitalist system
class consciousness

false consciousness
an awareness that the working class must adopt in order for the capitalist economy to deconstruct that consists of a subjective awareness of common vested interests and the need for collective political awareness

this is an attitude held by members of a class that does not accurately reflect its objective position
Weber's view of stratification
says that no single characteristic totally defines a person's position in the stratification system

says that there are three aspects to our position in society and they are a combination of class, status, and power
Conflict view of stratification
agree with Karl Marx

refers to the respect and admiration that an occupation holds in society

refers to the reputaion that a specific person has earned within an occupation
Absolute poverty
refers to a minimum level of subsistence that no family should be expected to live below
Relative poverty
a floating standard of deprivation by which people at the bottom of society, whatever their lifestyles, are judged to be disadvantaged in comparison with the rest of the nation as a whole.
life chances
an idea of Max Weber's

these are the opportunities to provide themselvesd with material goods, positive living conditions, and favorable life experiences
Social Mobility
refers to movement of individuals or groups from one position of a society's stratifcation system to another
open system

closed system
the position of wach individual is influenced by the person's acheived status

allows little or no possibility of moving up, based on ascribed status
types of mobility
horizontal mobility: when a person moves from one position in society to another of the same class and ranking

vertical mobility: when a person moves from one position to another position of higher ranking

Intergenerational mobility: this is when a child's occupational position changes relative to their parents

Intragenerational: this is when a person's occupation changes in their adult lifetime

when a foreign power maintains political, social, economic, and cultural domination over a people for an extended period of time

This is when a country has been liberated from its previous domination but still relies on the parent counrty for support and economic stability
World systems analysis
describes the unequal economic and political realtionships in which certain industrialized nations and their global corporations dominate the core of the system
Dependency theory
says that even as developing nations make economic advances, they remain weak and subservient to core nations and corporations in an increasingly intertwined global economy

modernization theory
the process by which cultures move from traditional processes to the way that more developed societies

a functionalist approach proposing that modernization and development will gradually improve the lives of people in developing nations
reducing the cause of something to a character trait that is within the person that causes them to be inadequate, such as unemployment being caused by laziness in a person