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75 Cards in this Set

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An approach emphasizing the role of conflict, competition, and constraint within a society.
Conflict perspective
anything that stands for something else and has an agreed-upon meaning attached to it.
symbol
the degree to which a society is unified.
social solidarity
an action that produces an intended and recognized result.
manifest function
an action that produces an unintended and unrecognized result.
latent function
when each person contributes in society.
functionalism
the patterned interaction of people in social relationships.
social structure
class owning the means for producing wealth.
Bourgeoisie
class that labors without owning the means of production; those who labor for the bourgeoisie
proletariat
approach that depicts human interaction as theatrical performances
dramaturgy
a measure of the relationship between two variables
correlation
both independent and dependent variables change in the same direction
positive correlation
variables change in the opposite direction
negative correlation
testable statement of relationships among variables
hypothesis
a characteristic that is subject to change
variable
research method in which a large number of people respond to questions
survey
a characteristic that is defined by its presence or absence in a category
qualitative
a characteristic that can be measured numerically
quantitative
the belief that events occur in predictable ways and that one event leads to another
causation
questions a person is to answer in his or her own words
open-ended questions
questions a person must answer bychoosing from a limited, predetermined set of responses.
closed-ended questions
judging others in terms of one's own cultural standards.
ethnocentrism
a subculture deliberately and consciously opposed to certain central beliefs or attitudes of the dominant culture.
counterculture
automatic reaction to physical stimulus
reflex
learning to participate in group life
socialization
a norm that is formally defined and enforced by officials
laws
a group that is part of the dominant culture but that differs from it in some important respects
subculture
the concrete, tangible objects of a culture
material
ideas, knowledge, and beliefs that influence people's behavior
nonmaterial
rules defining appropriate and inappropriate behavior
norms
norms that lack moral significance
folkways
norms that have moral dimensions and that should be followed by members of the society
mores
general cultural traits that exist in all cultures
cultural universals
a ruld of behavior, the violation of which calls for strong punishment
taboo
the study of the biological basis of human behavior
sociobiology
those people whose reactions are most important to your self-concept
significant others
set of individuals of roughly the same age and intersts
peer group
places in which people are separated from the rest of society and controlled by officials in charge
total institutions
group used for self-evaluation and the formation of attitudes, values, beliefs, and norms
reference group
a position that is neither earned nor chosen but assigned
ascribed status
a position that is earned or chosen
achieved status
the process of adopting new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors
resocialization
expected behavior associated with a particular status
role
condition in which the performance of a role in one status interferes with the performance of a role in another status
role conflict
a society that uses plows and draft animals in growing food
agriculture
a society in which the economic emphasis is on providing services and information
postindustrial
a society that depends on science and technology to product its baskc goods and services
industrial
the process of replacing animal and human power with machine power
mechanization
people who are emotionally close, know one another well, and seek one another's company
primary group
people who share only part of their lives while focusing on a goal or task
secondary group
when thinking in a group is self-deceptive, based on conformity to group beliefs, and created by group pressure to conform
groupthink
exclusive group demanding intense loyalty
in-group
group targeted by an in-group for opposition, antagonism, or competition
out-group
people temporarily in the same place at the same time.
social aggregate
a web of social relationships that joins a person to other people and groups
social network
behavior that matches group expectations
relativity
theory that society creates deviance by identifying particular members as deviant
labeling theory
anything that goes against the norms
deviance
deviance involving occasional breaking of norms that is not a part of a person's lifestyle or self-concept
primary deviance
deviance in which an individual's life and identity are organized around breaking society's norms
secondary deviance
a repetition of or return to criminal behavior
recidivism
an undesirable trait or label that is used to characterize an individual
stigma
acts committed in violation of the law
crime
process of changing or reforming a criminal through socialization
rehabilitation
ways to encourage conformity to society's norms
social control
process of reducing the seriousness of the crimes that injure people of lower status
victim discounting
job-related crimes committed by high-status peopls
white-collar crime
discouraging criminal acts by threatening punishment
deterrence
a stratification structure that does not allow for social mobility
caste system
the ablilty to control the behavior of others
power
recognition, respect, and admiration attached to social positions
prestige
layers of society
social stratification
can move up or down in social classes
social mobility
over half of households are held by women
poverty
most people in America consider themselves this
middle class