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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Stratification
A ranking system for groups of people that perpetuates unequal rewards and life chances in society.
Socioeconomic Status (SES)
prestige, honor, respect, and lifestyle associated with different positions or groups in society to another.
Social Mobility
A movement of people are groups from one class to another.
Four Stratification Systems
Slavery, Caste, Estate, and Social.
What do the Four Stratification Systems do?
Slavery: economic forms of inequality in which some people are legally the property of others

Caste System: stratification system based on heredity. with little movement alloed across strata.

Estate System (feudal system): stratification system in which high-status groups own land and have power based on birth.

Social class: group of people who share a similar economic position in society, based on their wealth and income
Stratification systems are designed to benefit _______ at expense of ________.
The "haves" and "have nots".
Marx’s Class Model
A two-class system focuses on means of production and ability to control labor of others.
Means of Production
land, commercial enterprises, factories, and wealth that form the economic basis of class societies.
Capitalist (bourgeoisie)
someone who owns the means of production and is able to purchase the labor power of others.
Worker (proletariat)
: individual who neither owns means of production nor has the ability to purchase the labor power of others and who must instead sell his or her own labor to survive.
Invisible Hand
If each person follows individual self interest, others will benefit.
Corporations can increase their profit or value through..?
1.Speculation
2. Fraud
3. Corporate Welfare
Speculation
Corporations can manipulate stock prices (and executive salary/stock options) through mergers, internal reorganizations, lay-offs, etc. that damage longs-term profitability.
Invisible Hand
If each person follows individual self interest, others will benefit.
Corporate Welfare
Economist use the term “rent-seeking” to describe manipulating economic environment, e.g., through government action, to produce value for the company, such as through tariffs tax breaks, exclusive licensing, creating barriers to entry.
Absolute Poverty
Inability to afford the minimal requirements for sustaining healthy existence
Corporations can increase their profit or value through..?
1.Speculation
2. Fraud
3. Corporate Welfare
Speculation
Corporations can manipulate stock prices (and executive salary/stock options) through mergers, internal reorganizations, lay-offs, etc. that damage longs-term profitability.
Corporate Welfare
Economist use the term “rent-seeking” to describe manipulating economic environment, e.g., through government action, to produce value for the company, such as through tariffs tax breaks, exclusive licensing, creating barriers to entry.
Absolute Poverty
Inability to afford the minimal requirements for sustaining healthy existence
Poverty Rate
percentage of people whose income falls below the poverty line
Near Poor
Individuals or families whose earnings are between 100% and 125% of the poverty line.
Communal Riot (race riot)
people targeted because of ethnic group, language, or religion
Commodity Riot
property is destroyed regardless of ownership.
Protest Riot
violence to protest policy or actions by authorities or others.
Police Riot
police beat people instead of arresting them.
Celebratory Riot
violence to celebrate sports victory or other occasion.
Intended Violence
violence that results from people pursuing inherently violent goals
Outcome Violence
Violence that results from people with non-violent goals, but who face resistance to these goals.
Race
Category of people labeled and treated as similar because of some common biological traits, such as skin color, texture of hair, and shape of eyes.
For many societies, the most important distinction is between ______ and ______.
"us" and "them"
The _________- one drop of black blood (i.e., any percentage of ancestry) makes someone black - was intended to preserve white purity.
"One-drop rule"
Miscegenation
racist term for marriage or sexual relations between a man & a women of different races.
Racism
belief that humans are subdivided into distinct groups that are different in their social behavior and innate capacities and that can be ranked as superior or inferior.
Personal Racism
individual’s expression of racist attitudes or behaviors
Can be either prejudice (attitudes) or discrimination (unfair treatment).
Institutional Racism
laws, customs, and practices that systematically reflect and produce racial and ethnic inequalities in a society, whether or not the individuals maintaining these laws, customs, and practices have racist intentions.
Why do whites make more than blacks?
Household composition
Education gap
Work in different occupations
Black offered lower paying jobs within same occupations
Wealth
Why do men make more than women?
1. Different work patterns
2. Occupational segregation
3. Occupation-wide pay discriminations
4. Promotion Gap
Second Shift
shift of housework that married women perform in addition to shift of work outside of home.
Demography
the study of human population.
Demographer
sociologist who studies trends in population characteristics.
Three major components of demography
Fertility: the incidence of childbearing in a country’s population
Mortality: the incidence of death in a country’s population
Migration: the movement of people into and out of a specified territory
Birth Cohorts
set of people who were born during the same era an who face similar societal circumstances brought about by their shared position in the overall age structure of the population.
Cohort Effect
phenomenon in which members of a birth cohort tend to experience a particular life event or rite of passage - puberty, marriage, childbearing, graduation, entry into the workforce, death - at roughly the same time.
Period Effect
phenomenon in which a historical event or major social trend contributes to the unique shape and outlook of a birth cohort.
Demographic Transition
stage of societal development in unindustrialized countries marked by growing life expectancy and high birthrates; concepts used to explain why populations in less-developed countries grow faster than those in more developed countries.
Three Stages of Demographic Transition
Stage 1 (preindustrial): slow growth because of very high birth and death rates
Stage 2 (early industrial): rapid growth because death rate drops, but birth rate remains high
Stage 3 (late industrial): slow growth because birth rate drops to approach death rate