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20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Shared ways of thinking and believing that grow out of a group experience are called
What is the term for cultural patterns that set apart some segment of a society’s population?
The shared belief that human life should be preserved at all costs would be called
a cultural value.
Norms that forbid murder are called
Culture and social organization
are interdependent.
The dominance of European (particularly English) cultural patterns is known as
Cultural universals can be accounted for in which of the following ways?
all of the above
To judge a culture as neither good nor bad is called
cultural relativism.
George Herbert Mead’s theory of the self would best fit which theoretical framework?
symbolic interactionism
Which of the following biological traits makes socialization possible?
both of the above
The spread of cultural elements from one society to another is called
According to Cooley, the image of our appearance to the other person is an element of
the looking-glass self.
According to Mead, the part of the self that consists of the internalized attitudes of others is called the
According to Freud, the part of the self that is referred to as the voice of the conscience is the
A person who is part of two cultures but is not completely socialized by either is said to be
socially marginalized.
Select the one true statement from among the following:
"Guilt" reflects our understanding of cultural norms.
Explain the difference between ethnocentrism and cultural relativism. Give one example of an ethnocentric attitude.
Ethnocentrism means that one judges other cultures by the standards of one’s own culture. Cultural relativism, on the other hand, can be thought of as the near opposite of ethnocentrism—in this view one does not judge cultures as "good" or "bad" but instead judges them on their own terms. Individual customs, therefore, according to cultural relativism, must be judged on their value to the entire culture in which the custom exists. It would be ethnocentric to assume that there is something wrong with people who do not celebrate Christmas.
How do we develop a sense of ourselves?
We develop our "self" through the process of socialization. A new-born baby must rely on parents and the community for identity.

All cultures attempt to give its members a self-concept. Three scholars who have contributed to our understanding of self concept are Charles Horton Cooley, George Herbert Mead, and Sigmund Freud.

Cooley described the self in terms of a looking-glass: we are the way we are in part because of other people’s reactions to us.

George Herbert Mead emphasized the importance of day-to-day socialization through the use of language, social interaction, and role taking in shaping the self. This shaping occurs in two stages. In the first stage, the child relates only to the significant others (parents, siblings, relatives) in their life. In the second stage, the child matures enough to act in response to the generalized other (or the whole community) through organized group activity such as playing a game. Mead further describes the self as consisting of the I and the me. The me is the part of the self that is conventional and socially controlled. The me plays the socially expected roles. The I responds when a person is presented with a unique situation.

Freud emphasized the role of socialization in both group and individual conflict and struggle. Freud viewed the self as divided into the id, ego, and superego—three elements which constantly struggle against one another.
With so much difference in the content of cultures, how can we account for cultural universals? Give two examples of such cultural universals.
Cultural universals occur because of the similarities that exist in all human beings (the psychic unity of humanity), because of the requirements of group life that allow for survival and growth, and because of our limited solutions to certain situations. Two examples of cultural universals are religious rituals and sexual restrictions.
What is gender? Why is gender significant to the socialization process?
Gender is a culturally and socially constructed difference between females and males. Most often, individuals are socialized according to their biological makeup, or sex. Feminine and masculine characteristics and roles are taught. Because they are so widespread we may come to view them as natural differences.

Because most societies highly value males, gender socialization is very different for male and female children. Parents tend to handle boy children more aggressively and girl children less aggressively. Toys help to socialize children into their gender roles. Gender socialization is important because it often determines later careers and economic stability. In the past, women earned less money than men across the board partly because traditional "feminine" careers yield low pay. In addition, because income often is associated with power and prestige, women tend to be powerless and suffer from low prestige.