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33 Cards in this Set

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Counterculture
A group whose values, beliefs and related behaviors place its members in opposition to the broader culture.
Cultural Diffusion
The spread of cultural Characteristics from one group to another.
Ideal Culture
The ideals values and norms of a people, the goal held out for them.
Folkways
Norms that are not strictly enforced.
Cultural Leveling
The process by which cultures become similar to one another and especially by which western industrial culture is imported and diffused into industrializing nations.
Subculture
The values and related behaviors of a group that distinguishes its members from the larger culture; a world within a world.
Nonmaterial culture
A groups ways of thinking (including its beliefs, values, and other assumptions about the world) and doing (its common patterns of behavior, including language and other forms of interaction).
Cultural lag
William Ogburns term for human behavior lagging behind technological innovations.
Negative sanction
An expression of disapproval for breaking a norm, ranging from a mild, informal reaction such as a frown to a formal prison sentence or an execution.
Sanctions
Expressions of approval or disapproval given to people for upholding or violating norms.
Values
The standards by which people define what is desirable or undesirable, good or bad, beautiful or ugly.
Pluralistic Society
A society made up of many different groups.
Sociobiology
A framework of thought that views human behavior as the result of natural selection and considers biological Characteristics to be the fundamental cause of human behavior.
Norms
The expectations, or rules of behavior, that develop out of values.
Language
A system of symbols that can be combined in an infinite number of ways and can represent not only objects but also abstract thought
New Technology
The emerging technologies of an era that have a significant impact on social life.
Real Culture
The norms and values that people actually follow.
Symbol
Something to which people attach meanings and then use to communicate with others.
Technology
In its narrow sense, tools; its broader sense includes the skills or procedures necessary to make and use those tools.
Culture shock
The disorientation that people experience when they come in contact with a fundamentally different culture and can no longer depend on their taken for granted assumptions about life.
Cultural relativism
Not Judging a culture, but trying to understand it on its own terms.
Ethnocentrism
The use of ones own culture as a yardstick for judging the ways of other individuals or societies, generally leading to a negative evaluation of their values, norms, and behaviors.
Taboo
A norm so strong that it brings revulsion if violated.
Culture
The language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors, and even material objects that are passed from one generation to the next.
Material Culture
The material objects that distinguish a group of people such as their art, buildings, weapons, utensils, machines, hairstyles, clothing, and jewelry.
Mores
Norms that are strictly enforced because they are thought essential to core values.
Cultural Universal
A value, norm or other cultural trait that is found in every group.
Value contradiction
Values that contradict one another, to follow the one means to come into conflict with the other.
Value cluster
A series of interrelated values that together form a larger whole.
Gestures
The ways in which people use their bodies to communicate with one another.
Positive Sanction
A reward given for following norms, ranging from a smile to a prize.
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
Edward sapir and Benjamin Whorfs hypothesis that language creates ways of thinking and perceiving.
Symbolic Culture
Another term for nonmaterial culture.