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87 Cards in this Set

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reveals the power of the society to shape individuals lives;can be encouraged by being an outsider or experiencing social crisis
sociological perspective
study of social behavior and human groups
sociology
who introduced concept of Sociological Imagination
C. Wright Mills
research on suicide suggest a higher rate in times of peace than in times of war
Emile Durkheim
taught students how to employ "verstehen" in their work(understanding and insight)
Max Weber
the study of the larger world and our society's place in it
Global Perspective
In what ways does sociological pespective pay off?
Helps us to access "common sense",see the oppurtunities and constraints in our lives, empowers us to be active participants in our society and helps us live in a divers world.
what changes were especially important in the sociological development?
rise of factory based or industrial economy, the growth of cities and new ideas about democracy and political rights
who coined the term "sociology" in 1938
August Comte
Comte's approach is called _______ , a scientific approach to to knowlwdge based on facts as opposed to mere speculation
positivism
A statement of how and why specific facts are related
theory
what is a basic image of society that guides thinking and research ?
Theoretical Approach
any relatively stable pattern of social behavior
social structure
What is the consequences of a social pattern for the operation of society as a whole?
social function
Herbert Spenser(1820-1903) compared society to what?
the human body
Robert Merton (1910-2003)expanded our understanding social functions by distinguishing between what terms? What are there meanings?
manifest functions-the recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern;latent functions-the unrecognized and unintended consequences of any social pattern.
any social pattern that may disrupt the operation of society
social dysfunction
a framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change
social-conflict approach
Regarded as the first woman sociologist
Harriet Martineau(1802-1876)
Sociological pioneer who in 1899 helped found Hull House, a settlement house for immigrant workers.
Jane Addams
Racial inequality sociological pioneers
Ida Wells Barnett and William Edward Burghardt Du Bois
A framework for building the theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability.
Structural-functional approach
A broad focus on structures that shape society as a whole
Macro-level orientation
A close-up focus on social interaction in specific situations.
Micro-level orientation
Is a framework for building thoery that sees society as a product of everyday interactions of individuals.
Symbolic-interaction approach
The symbolic-interaction approach has roots in thinking from what German sociologist ?
Max Weber
the study of society based on scientific observation and social behavior
positivist sociology
information we can verify with our senses
empirical evidence
a logical system that develops knowledge from direct, systemic observation
science
Helped develop the social conflict approach
Karl Marx
Helped to develop the symbolic -interaction approach
Max Weber and Herbert Mead
What benefits does applying the sociological perspective yeild?
helping us understand the barriers and oppurtunities in our lives, giving us advatage in our careers and guiding public policy
a mental construct that represents some aspect of the world in simplified form
concept
The study of society that focuses on discovering the meanings people attach to their social world.
Interpretive sociology
The study of society that focuses on the need for social change
critical society
Which is the correct definition of culture?
It is a way of life that is shared by memebers of a society and shapes how we act, think and feel.
which statement about culture is true?
It is a human trait on which we rely for survival.
Culture is a product of ________.
evolution
In what way can culture shock be created?
when we act in ways that others do not understand.
Cultural statistics.
200 different cultures exist in the US and 7000 in the world
what is something that carries a particular meaning and is recognized by people who share a culture.
symbol
what does the sociological perspective show use about whom any indiviual chooses to marry
The operation of society guides many of our persobal chioces.
The personal value of studying sociology includes
seeing the oppurtunities and constraints in our lives,it is good preparation for a number of careers and becoming more active participants of society
The discipline of sociology first developed in
countries experiencing rapid social change
Sociology's social-conflict approach draws attention to
patterns of social inequality
Empirical evidence refers to
information we can verify with our senses
when trying to measure people's "social class" you would have to keep in mind that
there are several ways to operationalize this variable
Interpretive sociology is a research orientation that
focuses on the meaning people attach to behavior
In participant observation, the problem of "breaking in" to a setting is often solved with the help of a
key informant
The critical sociology research orientation is linked most closely to which theoretical approach?
social-conflict approach
the process by which one generation passes culture on to the next is
cultural transmission
abstract standards of what ought to be
values
specific statements or ideas that people who share a culture hold to be true
beliefs
guide human behavior
norms
two types of norms
mores and folkways
norms that are widely spread and have great moral significance
mores
norms for routine or casual interaction
folkways
the idea that people see and understand the world through the cultural lens of language
Sapir-Whorf Thesis
compare ideal and real culture
one is how we should behave and the other is what actually occurs in everyday life
Culture is shaped by technology. true or false.
true
describe the stages of sociocultural evolution:
hunting and gathering, horticulture andnology and pastoralism, agriculture, industry and postindustrial information technology
Knowledge that people use to make a way of life in their surroundings
Technology
the use of hand tools to raise crop
horticulture
the domestication of animals
pastoralism
large scale cultivation using plows harnessed to animals or more powerful energy sources
agriculture
the production of goods using advanced sources of energy to drive large machinery
industry
the production of information using computer technology
postindustrialism
allows researchers to measure cause and effect between two or more variables
Experiment
a simplified description applied to ebery person in some catagory
stereotype
cultural pattern that distinguish a society's elite
high culture
cultural patterns that are widespread among a society's population
popular culture
cultural patterns that set apart some segment of a society's population
subculture
the spread of objects or ideas from one culture to the next
diffusion
the practice of judging another culture by the standards of one's own culture
ethnocentrism
judging a culture by its own standards
cultural relativism
a theoretical approach that explores ways in which human biology affects how we create culture
sociobiology
Of the world's countries the United States is the most
cultural
Ideas created by members of a culture are part of
nonmaterial culture
Sociologists define a symbol as
anything that has meaning to people who share a culture
U.S. culeure holds a strong belief in
individuality
Cheating on a final exam is an example of violating campus
mores
Which of the following describes ethnocentrism?
judging another culture by standards of your own culture
subculture refers to
cultural patterns which set apart a segment of a society's population
in human history the "dawn of civilization" took place with the development of
agriculture
which theoretical approach focuses on the link between culture and social inequality?
social-conflict approach
this approach views culture as a system of behavior by which members of societies cooperate to meet their needs
structural-functional approach
Globally, experts document almost ______ languages, suggesting the existance of many distinct cultures
7000