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12 Cards in this Set

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My Lai Massacre
was the massacre of hundreds of unarmed Vietnamese civilians, mostly women and children, by U.S. soldiers on March 16, 1968, in the hamlet of My Lai, during the Vietnam War. It prompted widespread outrage around the world and reduced American support at home for the war in Vietnam. The massacre is also known as the Son My Massacre (Vietnamese: thảm sát Sơn Mỹ) or sometimes as the Song My Massacre.[1] A U.S. Army report estimates that 347 Vietnamese were killed at My Lai.
Lesson from My Lai
Authoritization- authority to them to do it and they followed orders from high ranks

Routinization- in the army everyday is a routine and they are used to doing it

Dehumanization- making others feel not human and lower than them
Total Instituations (Durkheim)
as defined by Erving Goffman, is an institution where all parts of life of individuals under the institution are subordinated to and dependent upon the authorities of the organization. Total institutions are social microcosms dictated by hegemony and clear hierarchy.

Some boarding schools, concentration camps, prisons, mental institutions and boot camps fit this description.

Sociologists have pointed out that tourist venues such as cruise ships and theme parks are acquiring many of the characteristics of total institutions. Tourists may not be aware that they are being controlled, even constrained, but the environment has been designed to subtly manipulate the behavior of patrons. These examples differ from the traditional examples in that the influence is short term.
Functionalism (Durkheim)
is a sociological paradigm that originally attempted to explain social institutions as collective means to fill individual biological needs. Later, it came to focus on the ways in which social institutions fill social needs, especially social stability. Functionalism is a major sociological tradition, alongside other schools of thought, such as Conflict Theory and Interactionism. The theory is associated with Émile Durkheim and more recently with Talcott Parsons. It was developed by other sociologists in the 20th century and was a popular idea until the 1970s when it came under criticism from new ideas.
Karl Marx
he is most famous for his analysis of history, summed up in the opening line of the introduction to the Communist Manifesto (1848): "The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles." Marx believed that capitalism would be replaced by socialism which in turn would bring upon communism.
Karl Marx
(Proletariat/Bourgeoisie )
If the Proletariat did not exist the Bourgeoisie would not exist because the Bourgeoisie rely on the production and labor the Proletariat produce.
Max Weber
(The Protestant Ethic)
In The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, Weber puts forward the thesis that Puritan ethics and ideas had influenced the development of capitalism. However, religious devotion was usually accompanied by rejection of worldly affairs, including the pursuit of wealth and possessions. Why was that not the case with Protestantism? Weber addresses this apparent paradox in the book.
Mechanic/Organic Solidarity
Émile Durkheim introduced the terms "mechanical" and "organic solidarity" as part of his theory of the development of societies in The Division of Labour in Society (1893). In a society exhibiting mechanical solidarity, its cohesion and integration comes from the homogeneity of individuals - people feel connected through similar work, educational and religious training, and lifestyle. Mechanical solidarity normally operates in "traditional" and small scale societies.[2] Organic solidarity comes from the interdependence that arises from specialization of work and the complementarities between people - a development which occurs in "modern" and "industrial" societies.[2]
Anomie (Durkheim)
When applied to a government or society, anomie implies a social unrest, similar to the use of the word anarchy. He believed that anomie is common when the surrounding society has undergone significant changes in its economic fortunes, whether for good or for worse and, more generally, when there is a significant discrepancy between the ideological theories and values commonly professed and what was actually achievable in everyday life. This is contrary to previous theories on suicide which generally maintained that suicide was precipitated by negative events in a person's life and their subsequent depression.
Conflict Theory
Conflict theory states that the society or organization functions so that each individual participant and its groups struggle to maximize their benefits, which inevitably contributes to social change such as changes in politics and revolutions. The theory is mostly applied to explain conflict between social classes, proletarian versus bourgeoisie; and in ideologies such as capitalism versus socialism.All major institutions, laws, and traditions in the society are designed to support those who have traditionally been in power, or the groups that are perceived to be superior in the society according to this theory.The theory can be applied on both the macro level (like the US government or Soviet Russia, historically) or the micro level (a church organization or school club). In summary, conflict theory seeks to catalogue the ways in which those in power seek to stay in power. In understanding conflict theory, social class competition plays a key part.
Gender Socailization
Everyone learns norms, usually by breaking them (a boy runs through a girls game). We also learn them through interactions with adults and other individuals in society.

"Boys and Girls" affirm status as being a disturber of other sexs'. The boys are usually controling of larger areas like feilds and basketball courts, while girls are controling of little areas for jumprope and hop skotch. If these norms are broken the individual will be stereotyped as the other sex "tom boy" or "girly boy". Games such as cooties is used to seperate the boys and the girls too.
Modernization/ Post Modernization
Modernization is a concept in the sphere of social sciences that refers to process in which society goes through industrialization, urbanization and other social changes that is completely transform the lives of individuals.The concept of modernization comes from a view of societies as having a standard evolutionary pattern, as described in the social evolutionism theories. According to this each society would evolve inexorably from barbarism to ever greater levels of development and civilization. The more modern states would be wealthier and more powerful, and their citizens freer and having a higher standard of living.