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148 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Peter Berger characterized sociological perscpective as
Seeing the general in the particular
Global Perspective
The study of the larger wold and our society's place in it
Theological Stage
Religious view that society expressed God's Will
Metaphysical Stage
People saw society as a natural rather than supernatural phenomenon
Scientific stage
Analyze the physical world to study society
Comte Favored it
It's a way of understanding based on science
Believe society operates according to certain laws - just like gavity follows a law
Jane Addams
Founded the Hull House
Provided assistance to immigrant families
A statement of how and why specific facts are related
Theoretical paradigm
A basic image of society that guides thinking and research
Structural-Functional Paradigm
Frameword for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability - Auguste Comte involved
Social Structure
Any relatively stable pattern of social behavior
Social Functions
Consequences for the operation of society as a whole
Manifest Functions
Robert K. Merton - recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern - Like going to college for education
Latent Functions
Unrecognized and unintended consequences of any social pattern - like going to college for education, but meeting your future mate
Social dysfunctions
Social pattern's undeirable consequences for the operation of society
Social-Conflict paradigm
Framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change - inequilities in class, race, etc.

Critism is that it doesn't talk about unity
Macro-level orientation
A broad focus on social structures that shape society as a whole
Micro-level Orintation
A close-up focus on social interaction in specific situations
Symbolic-interaction paradigm
Framework for building theory that sees society as teh product of the everyday interations of individuals - attaching meaning to everything
A mental construct that represents some part of the world in a simplified form
Concept whose value changes from case to case
Consistancy in measurement - repeated
Precision in measuring exactly what one intends to measure
Spurious correlation
A correlation occuring because of a third factor
Interpretive Sociology
The study of society that focuses on the meaning people attach to their social world
Critical Sociology
The study of society that focuses on the need for social change
Means acting as if only the actions of men are important
Values, belieds, behavior and material objects that together form people's way of life
People who interact in a defined territory and share culture
Culture Shock
Personal disorientation when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life
Anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share a culture
Sapir-Whorf Thesis
Each symbolic system is at least partly unique wiith words if expressions that have no precise counterpart in another symbolic system - people perceive the world through their culture lens of language
Culturlly defined standards by which people access desirability, goodness an beauty and that serve as broad guidelines for social living
Specific staements that people hold to be true - abstract standards of goodness
Rules and expestations by which a society guides teh behavior of its members
Norms taht are widly observes and have great moral significance
Norms for routine or causual interaction
Knowledge that people use to make a way of life in their surroudings
The use of hand tools to raise crops
The domestication of animals
Production of goods using advances sources of energy to drive large machinery
High Culture
Cultural patterns that distinguish a society's elite
Popular Culture
cultural patterns that are widespread among a society's population
Cultural patterns that set apart some segment of a society's population
An educational program recognizing the cultural diversity of the united states and promoting the equality of all cultural traditions
Cultural patterns that strongly oppose those widely accepted within a society
Cultural Integration
The close relationships among various elements of a cultural system
Cultural lag
the fact that come cultural elements change more quickly than others, which may disrupt a cultural system
Cultural Relativism
The practice of evaluationg a culture by its own standards
Cultural Universals
Traits that are part of every known culture
A theoretical paradign that explores ways in which human biology affects how we create culture
Lifelong social experience by which individuals develop their human potential and learn culture
A person's fairly consistant patterns of acting, thinking, and feeling
The human being's basic drives - which are unconscious and demand immediate satisfaction
A person's conscious efforts to balance innate pleasure-seeking drives with the demands of society
Culturaln values and norms internalized by an individual - tells us why we can't have what we want
Peer group
A social group whose members have interests, social position, and age in common
Anticipatory Socialization
Learning the helps a person achieve a desired position
The study of aging and the elderly
A form of social organization in which the elderly have the most wealth, power and prestige
Prejudice and discrimination against the elderly
A category of people with a common characteristic, usually their age
Total institution
A setting in which people are isolated from the rst of society and manipulated by an administractive staff
Redically changing an inmate's personality by carefully controlling the environment
Social Interaction
The process by which people act and react in relation to others
A social position that an individual occupies
Status set
all the statuses a person holds at a given time
Ascribed status
a social position a person receives at birth or assumes involuntariy later in life
Acheived status
A social position a persom assumes voluntarily that reflects peraonl ability and effort
Master status
A status that has special important for social identity, often shaping a person's entire life - like occupation
Behavior expected of someone who holds a particular status
Role set
A number of roles attached to a single status
Role conflict
Conflict between roles corresponding to two or more statuses - like being a woker and a mother
Role strain
Tension between roles connected to a sigle status - like a manager who wants to befriend employees but still be boss
Social construction of reality
Process by which people creatively shape reality through social interation
Thomas Theorem
Situations that are defined as real are real in their consequences - if you act a certain way you become it
The study of the way people make sense of their everyday surroundings
Dramaturgical Analysis
The study of social interaction in terms of theatrical performance - Goffman
Presentation of Self
An individual's efforts to create specific impressions in the minds of others
Nonverbal communication
Communication using body movements, gestures, and facial expressions rather than speech
General conduct or deportment
"Saving face" after an embarassing moment
6 basic emotions
Happiness, sadness, anger, fear, disgust, and surprise
Social Group
2 or more people who identify and interact with one another

Families, church groups, clubs
Primary Group
Small social group whose members share personl and enduring relationships

Secondary Group
A large and impersonal social group whose members pursue a specific goal or activity

Tend to be united by common goal
Instrumental leadership
Group leadership that emphaizes the completion of tasks

Get respect
Expressive leadership
Group leadership that focuses on collective well-being - want to raise group morale as apposed to reaching goal

Get affection
Stanly Milgram
Line thing & electric shock
Solomon Asch
Line thing-group conformity, with Milgrim
Group think
The tendency of group members to confrom, resulting in a narrow view of some issue
Reference Group
A social group that serves as a pont of reference in making evaluations and decisions
A social grup commanding a member's esteem and loyalty
A scial group toward which one feels competition or opposition
A social group with two members
A social group with three members - more stable than dyad because one member can act a mediator
A web of weak social ties
Formal organizations
Large secondary groups organized to achieve their goals efficiently
Sentiments and beliefs passed from generation to generation
Deliberate, matter-of-fact calculation of the most efficient means to accomplish a particular task
Change from traditional to rationality as the dominant mode of human thought
Organizational model rationally designed to perfrom tasks effiviently - Weber
Organizational Environment
Factors outside the organization that affect its operation - like technology, economic and political trends
Bureaucratic ritualism
A preoccupation with rules and regulations to the point of thwarting an organizations goals
The rule of the many by the few
Efficiency, Calculability, unifromity and predictability, control through automation
Sociological Pertspective allows us
to see the general in the particular, the strange in the familiar, individuality in social context
Benefits of sociological perspective
Helps us assess truth of common sense

Helps us assess both opportunities and constraints in our lives
Empowers us to be active participants in our society
Helps use to live in a diverse world
3 Major social changes during the 17th and 18th century
1.) Industrial revolution
2.) Urbanization in Europe
3.) Rise of bourgeoisie
The goal of sociology
Explain social behavior in the real world
EMile Durkheim
Founder of Structural-functional Paradign

Society is a complex system whose parts work together - social structures - a relatively stable pattern of social behavior
Weakeness of Structural-Functional Paradign
Focus on stability, often ignores inequalities - can't explain change
Strenghts of Structural-Functional Paradign
Recongnizes the complexity and interdependency of social systems
Social-Conflict Paradign
Karl Marx - Inequalities
Weaknesses of social conflict
Ignores social unity and stability
Symbolic-Interaction Paradign
Society is the product of the everyday interactions of individuals - focuses on patterns of social interaction in specific settings, symbolic nature of human behavior - micro level
Rigorous scientific research helps us to be
Objective, increase credibility and allows others to check our results
A procedure for determining the value of a variable in a specific case
Critical Sociology
Focuses on the need for social change and on power
Max Weber
The proper focus of sociology is interpretation
Interpretive Sociology
The study of society that focuses on the meanings people attach to their social world
Secondary Analysis
A researcher uses data collected by others - huge data sets are avaiable
Content Analysis
A research method based on the analysis of written documents
Components of Culture
1.) Symbols
2.) Language
3.) Values
4.) Beliefs
5.) Norms
Cultural Transmission
The process by which one generation passes culture to the next
Sapir-Whorf Theses
People perceive the world through the cultural lens of language
Popular Culture
Cuts out a subset of population
Cultural Integration
The close relationships among various elements of a cultural system
The practice of judging another cutlure by the standards of one's own culture
Cultural relativism
The practice of evaluating a culture by its own standard
Cultural Aspect of structural-functional paradign
Culture is a complex strategy for meeting human needs
Culture aspect of social-conflict paradign
Many cultural traits function to the advantage of some and the disadvantage of others
Who studied isolation in monkeys!?
Harry and Margaret Harlow
The Self
The part in the individual's personality composed of self-awareness and self-image
Peer groups
Social groups whose members have interests, social positions and ages in common
Mass media
Impersonal communications aimed at a vast audience
Social interaction
The process by which people act and react to others
Master Status
A status that has special importanace for social identity, like occupation, gender, age
Social construction of reality
the process by which people creatively shape reality through social interaction
The study of teh way people made sense of their everyday surroundings
We're like actors on a stage
Dramaturgical Analysis
The study of social interaction in terms of theatrical performance
People who share a status
A collection of people in the same place at the same time
Janis's research
We tend to surround ourselves with people who share similar opinsions - problems with US foreign policy
Large groups turn
Heterogenenous groups turn
Traits of a bureaucracy
Specialization, hierarchy of offices, rules and reguatlations, technical competence, impersonality, formal, written communication