Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

118 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the definition of a society?
A society is an intricate and complicated structure composed of parts and processes.
The scientific study of the relationship between social structure and human behavior.
Sociological Imagination
C. Wright Mills' famous term for the discipline's ability to show the relationship between social and personal patterns.
Social Networks ; lowest level
Refers to organizations, institutions, and finally societies
Links different organizations in different societies.
Sociological royalty that would rule society according to scientific principles.
the information gathered through a scientific study of a phenomenon.
Based on the anaysis of real-world experience.
The statements typifying the behavior of large numbers of people in a social structure.
A proposistion about the relationship between two or more concepts.
An abstract category for classifying aspects of reality.
An intellectual model for selection crucial concepts and forms of evidence.
A major theoretical approach in sociology that focuses on how social parts contribute4 to society as a system.
A negative consequence of a social part for the system of society.
Positive Function
The positive consequences of social parts for the system of society.
social facts
Emile Durkheim's term for the supra-individualo phenomena that are the subject matter of sociology.
conscience collective
Emile Durkheim's term for a common set of ideas and moral sentiments shared by individuals.
social integration
the forces binding society together.
Even viciously dysfunctional acts can serve positive functions wihin the social system.
the number of occurrences of a phenomenon for a constant base of population.
egotistic suicide
caused by too little social integration.
altruistic suicide
caused by excessive social integration.
Conflict Theory
A major theoretical approach in sociology that focuses on the conflict among the social structures in a society.
The fundamental fact of socialo life is conflict.
means of production
Karl Marx's term for the economic structure of society.
A set of individuals sharing a common relationship to the means of production.
ruling class
the class that controls the means of production of a given society
the various forms of social life built upon the means of production,
a set of ideas justifying the interests of a classs.
symbolic interactionism
a major theoretical approach in sociology that focuses on the meanings that arise from the interactions among individuals in a society.
Max Weber's term for the description of a given social phenomenon in its conceptual purity in order to reveal its essential features.
Max Weber'[s term for the attempt to understand the intentions of social actors on their own terms.
ideal type
Max Weber's term for the description of a given social phenonmenon in its conceptual purity in order to reveal its essential features.
level of analysis
the higer the level, the larger the social structure under study.
structural differentiation
Emile Durkheim's theory tracing the increasing complexity and specialization on social structures.
mechanical solidarity
the human attraction generated by common moral sentiments, typical of tribal societies.
organic solidarity
social integration based on functional dependence of specialists, typical of modern societies.
the weakening of moral regulation of the self associated with personal and social disorder.
class consciousness
an awareness among the mebers of a given class of their common interests in the class struggle.
people losing control of the social order created by their labor, resulting in personal dissatisfaction and social disorder.
multi-factor theory
an explanatory approach identifying multiple sources of social change.
the systematic application of standardized means to predetermined ends.
objective dimension
the concrete, measurable human harm associated with a societal phenomenon.
subjective dimension
the general level of concern about that phenomenon registered in public opinion.
the real qualities of a thing outside the mind of the reasearched observing it.
Weber's term for the 'ethically neutral' procedures of sociology that would, ideally, allow an objective view of social reality untainted by personal values.
the duplication of a research prodecure to verify the results.
a reseatch strategy that fcreate4s an artificial situation in ord to simplify reality and highlight variables of interest.
a situation in which a change in on variable produces a change in another variable.
the method by which subjects are assigned to either the experimental or control group according to the rules of chance.
artificial alterations in behavior created by an awareness of being studied.
the degree to which conclusions can be extended to the population outside the study participants.
participant observation
the researcher participates in the group process in order to observe its natural functioning.
a participant in a survey.
a set of people systematically selected from the larger population about which the researcher wishes to generalize.
probability sampling
a procedure in which the chance of a unit's selection is known in advance, aqnd therefore the hance of sampling error can be estimated.
sampling frame
the list population units from which a sample is drawn.
response rate
the percentage of the sample actually responding to the survey.
close-ended item
a survey question in which available answer choices are provided to the respondent in precoded form.
open-ended item
a survey question that allows a respondent to phrase his or her own answers.
the degree to which a measurement procedure measures what it is supposed to measure.
the degree to which a measurement procedure yields consistent results.
a measured concept whoses values can vary.
frequentcy distribution
a display of the numbers and percentages of respondents for each value of a variable.
bivariate relationship
a statistical association between two variables.
a table that 'crosses' the frequencies of different variables to look for statistical relationships.
inferential statistics
the formulars used to draw a generalization about population on the basis of sample values.
positive relationship
a statistical association in which a higer level of one variable is associated with a higher level of another variable.
negative relationship
a statistical association in which a higher level of one variable is associated with a lower leve of another variable.
mlti-method approach
the use of several research techniques in the same research project.
secondary analysis
the re-use of datasets already compiled by public or private organizations.
focus group
an open-ended discussion among several respondents guided by the interviewer.
choice/constraint model
people making social choices within the constraints imposed by larger social structures.
social network
the pattern of ties among the units of a social system.
a social tie with more than on relationship type.
the degree of interconnection among network members.
the degree of emotional intimacy in a network tie.
interaction frequency
how often a network tie is activated by personal communication.
the time span over which a network tie has endured.
social support
emotional and practical help provided by network members.
a structural position in a social system
dramaturgical school
those analyzing social life as a theatrical production.
a patter of behavior appropriate for a given status
role expectations
the specific behaviors a status occupant is supposed to exhibit.
status set
the multiple social positions occupied by an individual.
role conflict
the inconsistency of demands across the positions of an individual's status set.
master status
the individual's role that is given the greatest societal significance.
role set
a pattern of complementary roles linked to a single status.
role strain
inconsistent expectations within the role set.
exchange theory
an approach to social structure that views social relations as transactions within which resources are given and taken.
the fallacy of treating an abstraction as real.
the study of commonsense practical reasoning.
reference group
a group whose standards one applies to the self.
anticipatory reference group
a group whose standards are internalized in advance of personal membership.
multiple reference groups
an individual's membership in several reference groups at one time.
primary group
a group characterized by intimate, multiplex, expressive relations.
secondary group
a group characterized by impersonal, uniplex, instrumental relations.
social relations that link higher to lower lebels of social structure.
according to Max Weber, the distinctively modern group form characterized by specialization, hierarchy, regulations, impersonality, and technical qualifications.
bureaucratic ritualism
bureaucratic regulations being treated as more important than bureaucratic goals.
bounded rationality
a simplified model of a decision-making problem based on selected sources of information.
making a decision that is satisfactory and sufficient, rather than a perfect decision based on complete rationality.
normal accidents
breakdowns that are an inherent property of certain kinds of tightly coupled complex organizations.
interlocking directorate
members of the executive board of one organization also sitting on the board of other organizations.
large-scale social structures that address basic societal needs.
the structural similarity of organizations.
organizational envireonment
the larger social setting of an organization, including other organizations.
compliance theory
explanation of the mechanisms by which organizations gain the compliance of their members.
multinational corperations
large firms operating beyond the macrostructure of a single society.
the set of technologically advanced, developed countries with a dominant position within the world system.
the set of less-developed countries providing labor and raw materials to the core within the world system.
the set of countries intermediate between the core and periphery within the world system.
a place of personalized relationships based on mutual acquaintanceship.
a place of impersonality based on a lack of mutual acquaintanceship.
the socially standardized ways of thinking, feeling, and acting that a person acquired as a member of as particular society.
a large number of people who live in the same territory and are relatively independent of others outside their area.
the mechanisms necessary for the storage and transmission of the large quantities of information that consititute culture.