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70 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
task-oriented labor
one works a job util he or she has acomplished the undertaking
time-oriented labor
work is measured by the amount of time workes spend laboring at a task
culture
everything learned and used by members of a society
structure
organization and relation between components in soiety
meritocracy
people riese and fall in the system according to their individual merits
capital
anything that can be traded for financial value
economic capital
comprises existing monetar assests or tangible posessions.
social capital
comprises of networks of relationships that can be mobilized for economic gain
cultural capital
consits of the ability to interact in a manner that is customary to the more privileged members in society.
total institutions
self-contained societies that are designed to service all the needs of the people residing withing their boundaries.
level of analysis
to limit the range and complexity of the observatins to be examined
microlevel analysis
study of face-to-face interaction because it occurs between the most fundamental elements of society- people
macrolevel analysis
designed to examine the workings of entire societies and requires linking organizations and individual experience with the larger social order
perspectives
points of view or lenses that guide our perceptions of reality
symbolic interactionism
theory largely attributed to the teachings of George Hrbert Mead- examins the dynamics of face-to-face encounters in order to explain social interaction
speration phase
a brief period when a large pool of potential candidates becomes reduced to a select few
transition phase
a status shift, when the candidates can no longer consider themselves members either
incorporation phase
where the individuals' status officially changes to full membership in the group
symbolic interacionism
a way of linking a number os sociological studies into a theretical whole
Thomas theorem
if people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences
packaging
the systematic linking of symbols and objects together in such a way that perceptions are shaped and managed.
material self
constituted by the tangible objects that represent who we are as individuals
social self
comprises the set of relations we have with other people
greedy organizations
groups that set up strong boundaries between members and nonmembers, as well as place strong demands on members' time and loyalty
looking-glass self
a metaphor suggesting that we see ourselves reflected n the responses others make towards you
stratification
layering the society into levels of social hierarchy that confer social status, power, or economic reward
social mobility
movement of a person from one level in the stratification system to a higher or lower level
caste societies
social mobility was greatly restricted because one's position was ascribed at birth
class societies
the positio a person occupies in eh economy has a great influence on his/her potential of achieving upward mobility
glass ceiling
the invisible barrier to ahieving the highest levels of accomplishmnt
socially constructed
social factors outside of some type of unchangeable genetic predisposition
socialization
process through which people gin and underswtanding of their roles in cosiety in relation to everyone else
agents of socializaiton
teach people to conform to these social expectations
primary groups
people with whom individuals have close personal relationships, such as friends and family
secondary groups
people with whom individuals have face-to-face relationships, but there relaiohships are less personal nature an doften are of shorter duration
normative alternatives theory
men and women are socialized to use different yardsticks to meaure their success
deconstruct
to tear a cultural product apart in order to examine the assumptions and symbols that its foundation comprises.
discrimination
subordanite groups are denied access tot eh types of rewards and resources open to dominant groups
intentional discrimination
members of society make decisions to deprive other members of equitable rights and privileges
prejudice
preexisting beliefs about individuals because of thei rmembership in a particular social group
unintentional discrimination
behavours that deny fair and equitable treatment, emanating from dispositins that are not necessarily accompanied by ill will or malice on the part of the oppressor
statistical discrimination
making predictions of productivity of individuals based upon their knowledge of the social group's characteristics
institutional discrimination
occrs through the familiar operations of society and it is embedded in teh ruels and norms that ugide organizations
coparable worth
a way of conceptualizing how much an occupation should ideally pay by compring that job to other occupations with similar demands.
affirmative action
means of overcoming institutionalized discrimination
unintentional discrimination
behavours that deny fair and equitable treatment, emanating from dispositins that are not necessarily accompanied by ill will or malice on the part of the oppressor
statistical discrimination
making predictions of productivity of individuals based upon their knowledge of the social group's characteristics
institutional discrimination
occrs through the familiar operations of society and it is embedded in teh ruels and norms that ugide organizations
coparable worth
a way of conceptualizing how much an occupation should ideally pay by compring that job to other occupations with similar demands.
affirmative action
means of overcoming institutionalized discrimination
Stratification
the layering of society into levels of social hierarchy that confer social status, power, or economic reward.
social mobility
the movement of a person from one level in the stratification system to a higher or lower lever
class societies
the position a person occupes in the economy has a great influence on his/her potential of achieving upward mobility
glass ceiling
the invisable barrier to achieving the highest levels of accomplishments
socialization
the process through which people gain an understanding of their roles in society in relation to everyone else
informal socialization
subtle gestures or cues that other people send to boys and girls to behave in accordance with their gender roles
agents of socialization
teach people to conform to these social expectations
what are the three agents of socialization?
primary groups, secondary groups, and the mass media
priimary groups
people with whom the individuals have a close personal relationships, such as familly and friends
secondary groups
people with whom individuals have face-to-face relationships are of a less personal nature and often are of shorter duration
normative alternatives theory
men and women are socialized to use different yardsticks to measure their success
deconstruct
to tear a cultural product apart in order to examine the assumptions and symbols that its foundation comprises.
discrimination
subordinate groups are denied access to the types of rewards and resources open to dominant groups
intentional discrimnation
occurs because members of society make decisions to deprive other members of equitable rights and privileges
prejuduce
preexistiing bliefs about individuals because of their membership in a particular social group
unintentional discimination
behaviors that deny fair and equitable treatment, emanating from dispositions that are not necessarily accompanied by il will or malice on the part of the oppressor
statistical discrimination
making predictions of productivity of individuals based upon their knowledge of the social group's characteristics.
institutional discrimination
occurs through the familiar operations of society, and it is embedded in the rules and norms that guide organizations
comparable wort
a way of conceptualizing how much an occupation should ideally pay by coomparing that job to other ccupatinos with similar demands
affirmative action
programs that were introduced s a means of overcoming institutionlized discrimination