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39 Cards in this Set

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What are the three main theories of Sociology?
Structural Functionalism, Conflict Theory (macro) and Symbolic Interactionism (micro).
What is Structural Functionalism?
Structural Functionalism-(popular in the 50's, Telcott Parsons picket fence-equilibrium, harmony and balance. Structured on bureaucratic institutions (religion, politics etc)
What is Conflict Theory?
Karl Marx-society is in a state of conflict. Power/competition/resources. (2 groups haves/have nots. The rich and the poor are in conflict.
What is Symbolic Interactionism?
symbols and the way we interact with those symbols Mead, Cooley, Goffman, definition through interaction with others.
What is the definition of sociology?
The study of human behavior : the way people interact.
What is a theory?
Used to explain an event/phenomenon in society.
What is the definition of society?
A large social grouping that shares the same geographical territory and is subject to the same political authority and dominant culture expectations.
What is global interdependence?
A relationship in which the lives of all people are intertwined closely and any one nation's problems are part of a larger global problem.
What did Peter Berger believe?
He said that social inquiry helps us "see things that are not what they seem."
What does commensense knowledge do?
It guides ordinary conduct in everyday life. Individual people usually commit acts and other individuals suffer as a result.
Who was C. Wright Mills and what contributions did he bring to sociology?
He described sociological imagination. The ability to see between individual experiences and the larger society.
What contributions did Emily Durkheim bring to sociology?
Durkheim refused to accept commensense explanations of suicide.
What is anomie? Who coined this term?
A condition in which social control becomes ineffective because of loss of shared values. (Emily Durkheim).
What did Karl Marx view history as?
Marx viewed history as a clash between conflicting ideas and forces. He believed class conflict produced social change and a better society.
Who was Max Weber?
(1864-1920). He thought economic systems were heavily influenced by other factors in society. Sociology should be unbiased (value free). We should employ verstehen or "insight."
What did Georg Simmel believe?
He believed society was a web of patterns and interactions among people.
What is formal sociology?
Formal sociology focuses on the recurring social forms that underlie the varying content of social interaction.
What is ubuntu?
The way you treat someone as a human being. Treat people with compassion, humanness and dignity.
Who was Auguste Comte?
Considered the founder of sociology. Believed objective knowledge could only be attained through science. Actually just coined the phrase sociology.
Who is Harriet Martineau? What did she do for sociology?
Believed society would improve when
-Women and men were treated equally
-Enlightened reform occured
-Cooperation existed among all social classes.
Who was Herbert Spencer?
Spencer had an evolutionary perspective on social order and social change.
What is the definition of evolutionary theory?
A theory to explain the mechanisms of organic/social change. Societies develop through a process of struggle for existence and fitness for survival. (Social Darwinism)
What is positivism?
August Comte's belief that the world can be best understood through scientific inquiry.
What are social facts?
Durkheim's term for patterned ways of acting/thinking and feeling that exist outside any one individual but that exert social control over each person.
What are functionalist perspectives?
The sociological approach that views society as a stable orderly system.
When did sociology spread to the United States?
In the 1890's.
Where was the first department of sociology?
The University of Chicago.
(The American Sociological Association).
What did George Herbert Mead do?
Founded the symbolic interaction perspective.
Who was Jane Addams? What did she do?
Jane Addams founded the Hull House (settlement house) and used methodical technique employed by sociologists for the next 40 years.
Who was W.E.B. Du Bois?
He found the second department of sociology at Atlanta Univ. He noted that dual heritage creates conflict for people of color. Called the duality "double conciousness."
Who was Talcott Parsons?
He believed all societies must provide for meeting social needs in order to survive.
What are manifest functions?
Functions that are intended and/or overly recognized by the participants in a social unit.
What are latent functions?
Unintended functions that are hidden and remain unacknowledged by participants.
What are conflict perspectives?
The sociological approach that views groups in society as engaged in a continuous power struggle for control of scarce resources.
What is the difference between macrolevel and microlevel analysis?
Macrolevel analysis examines whole societies while microlevel analysis focuses on small groups.
What is a symbolic interactionist perspective?
The sociological approach that views society as the sum of the interactions of individuals and groups.
Explain suicide i.e. Who is most likely to do it, who is most likely to succeed? social glass, gender etc.
People with a lower socioeconomic status. Females more likely to attempt, males more likely to succeed.
What are post-modern perspectives?
The sociological approach that attempts to explain social life in modern societies that are characterized by post-industrialization consumerism and global consumerisms.
What is ethnography?
A detailed study of the life and activities of a group of people by researchers who may live with that group over a period of years.