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30 Cards in this Set

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sociology
the systematic study of human society, or group human behavior choices
sociological perspective
the special point of view of sociology that sees general patterns of society in the lives of particular people
theory
a statement of how and why specific facts are related
positivist sociology
the study of society based on systematic observations of social behaviors
structural functionism
sees society as a complex systems whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability
interpretive sociology
study of society that focuses on discovering the meanings people attach to their social world
critical sociology
study of society that focuses on the need for social change
manifest function
the recognized and unintended consequences of any social pattern
latent function
unrecognized and unintended consequences of any social patterns
dysfunction
any social pattern that may disrupt the operation of society
conflict theory
a framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of inequaliity that generates conflict and change
symbolic interactionism
framework for building theory that sees society as the product of the everyday interactions of individuals
concept
a mental construct that represents some aspect of the world in a simplified form
variable
a concept whose value changes from case to case
reliability
consistency in measurement
validity
actually measuring exactly what you intend to measure
correlation
a relationship in which 2 or more variables change together
independent variable
the cause of an effect (or dependent variable)
dependent variable
the effect of a cause (or independent variable)
experiment
a research method for investigating cause and effect under highly controlled situations
hypothesis
an educated guess about how variables are linked
survey
a research method in which subjects respond to a series of statements or questions in an interview or on a questionnaire
sample
a small number of subjects selected to represent an entire population
participant observation
a research method in which investigators systematically observe people while joining htem in their routine activities
The SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE means "seeing the general in the particular." What does that mean?
sociology helps us see general patterns in the beheavior of particular people (i.e. rich, poor, men, women)
In 1897, EMILE DURKHEIM proved that social forces effect suicides. What are these factors?
She proved that rich, single, white, Protestant males are most likely to commit suicide due to a lack of social ties. Factors that influence this are:
-race
-marital status
-gender
-religion
In what ways does applying the sociological perspective benefit our daily lives?
-helps us find the truth
-helps us see the limits and constraints in our lives
-empowers us to be active members of society
-helps us live in a diverse world
"Striking changes in seventeenth and eighteenth century drove to the development of sociology." What were these changes?
the Industrial Revolution --> growth of cities, political freedom,
Who was AUGUST COMTE?
wrote a book in 1838 coining the term "sociology"; first one to suggest a scientific approach to human behavior; regarded as the father of sociology
How does the structural-functional paradigm view society?
the traditional way of doing things to promote stability and solidarity