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91 Cards in this Set

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Revolution
mass uprising of people who use violence to overthrow the existing government and install a new government
Civil War
the mass mobilization of two or more segments of the population of a single society to fight against each other
War
the mass mobilization of the population of two or more societies to fight against each other
Terrorism
the use of violence by members of the population of one society against members of the population of the same or different society,violence against civilian populations
Revolutions occur when there is _____ and ______
high inequality, low social mobility
Civil Wars are often fought over ______ or forms of _____
economic resources, economic organization
Civil Wars arise from _____, ______, or _________
stalled revolutions, ethnic conflicts, or colonial independence struggles
Traditional Wars are common between ______ and ______
agricultral and industrial societies
The world's highest levels of military spending are in the ______ and ______
Middle East and North Africa
Weapons of Mass Destruction
Nuclear Weapons, Radiological weapons, Biological weaons, chemical weapons
Globalization
the process whereby most nations of the world are connected via communication and trasportation
Globalization was frist defined at Pitt by _____
Ronald Robertson
_____ is the ultimate driver of processes of Globaliztion
Economic integration
____ is the most commonly used measure of econoic integraion
trade globalization
Trade globalization
the number of jobs that depend on contact with the outside world
____ is the key technological innocation that made globalization possible
the clock
Astrolabe
invented to determine latitude
Sextant
made it possible to determine latitude at sea
the invetions of the _____ made long distance sea trade safe and reliable
sea clock
Modernization Theory of Globalization
globalization is inevitable, good for productivity, people need to accept globalization
Dependency Theory of globalization
stresses the "development of underdevelopment", countries have no choice but to join the global world-economy even if they do not benefit
Absolute Poverty
the level below which it is impossible to sustain human life on a long-term basis, 40% of population
Extreme Poverty
the level below which it is impossible to sustain human life even on a short-term basis, 20% of population
US is a major provider of _______
development aid
Globalization has hit ____ countries harder than ______
developing countires, developed countries
Trade Globalization is ______ and _____ associated with National Income Inequality
weatly and inconsistently
Growth Rates worldwide have been _____ since the age of globalization
lower
Social Movement
broad collection of individuals and organizations working together to effect change
Social Movement Organization
Organizational structure with many volunteers, direct social movements
John Brown
attempted to organize a slave revolt in Virginia and briefly seized control of Harper's Ferry
Seneca Falls Movement
feminists met in seneca falls to draft a decleration demanding equal rights for women (decleration of sentiments)
Suffrage Movement
Susan B. Anthony founded National Womens Suffrage Association, women allowed to vote 50 yrs later
Women's rights movement
National Organazation for Women was founded
Haymarket Riots
demanded 8 hr work day, founded American Federation of Labor
Great Railroad Strike of 1877
striking workers in the strip district were suppressed by the state militia
Mass Behavior theory of social movements
responses to situations of disequuilibrium in society, Chicago School
New Social Movements Theorty
sms were result from legitimate grievances of large sectors of society, Maxist
Resource Mobilization theory
crowd mobilization and persistance of movement are related to the resources of those involved. must be cost effective to be successful, arrise from structural strain
al-Qaeda
most importatn anti-american islamic fundamentalist social movement organization, attempts to act as a coordination body for a large number of loosely-connected andti-American organizations and individuals
4 major bases of power in society that political systmes are organized around
Coercive, Symbolic, Administrative, Incintive
The efficiencey of ___________ bases of power rises along with national income level
administrative
Forms of Incentives
drivers license and social security card
Most non defense spending inthe US is actually ____ and local_____
state and local
Hegemony
predominant influence of one state over a world-economy, US became hegemony in 1945
two main processes os social integration
socialization and social control
Socialization
instills in individuals the basic components of personality that encourage them to voluntarily participate in society
Social Control
mechanisms that are involuntary incentives for individuals to participate in society whether they want to or not
cultural directives
the socialization of individuals into the collective consciences of the societies in which they live
____ is a force that undermines social integration, main cause of social disorder
Inequality
Social Deviance
behavior that violates the widely acccepted norms that underlie a society's cultural directive
Macrosociologists
study economic systmes and how the global economy changes over time
Modern industrial societies have economies based on ___________
inorganic sources of energy
Widespread industrialization has drive ______, ____, and ______
urbanization, social differentiation, and population growth
When teh wolrd's richest countries gave up on industry, ___________
their populations fell
Primary Sector
agriculture, mining
Secondray sector
manufacturing, transportation
Teritary sector
private services, government services
Paraprofessions
nurse practitioners, paralegals, TAs- at risk of offshoring
Monopsony
where there is only one buyer- walmart becoming one for sellers(you must sell your products at walmart)
Most of the profit in today's manufacturing value chain goes to _____
the retailer
Statuses
the positions people occupy in a social structure
Roles
statuses that are associated with behavior norms
Status Set
collection of statuses held by an individual ex, student, daughter
Role Set
collection of roles associated with status, attached to status not person
Role Strain
occurs when individuals have difficulty simultaneously fulfilling all of the behavioral expectations of there status's role set ex- adults who have to care for their parents as well as their children
Role Conflict
when different status's roles conflict ex- teenagers that are pregnant
Stratification
the structureing of society by level of command over resources like income, power, and prestige
Substructure
the person who controls the means of production
Gini Coefficient
measures the degree of income statification
poverty is _____ as weath is ______
rising, rising
Functionlist theory of Religion
tool for social integration, Durkheim
Conflict theory of Religion
see religion as a tool for social control (opaiate of the masses, marx)
Most of the islamic world is ____ but Iran and parts of Iraq and Afghanistan are mostly _______
Sunni, Shi'a
Umma
the entire muslin world
Shahada
profession of faith
salaat
prayer five times a day
sawm
fasting during ramadan
zakat
charitable giving
hajj
pilgrimage to mecca
sharia
muslim law
Values
overarching moral principles
Beleifs
prepresent people's contextual ideas about approrpeate outcomes in particular situations
norms
represent people's actual behaviors in social situations
Value sets differ over_______
tradition vs. modernity
Comte
Positivistic
economic, political, and cultural integration
Spencer
Biology
Operative, distributive, and regulatory
Marx
Bourgeoisie vs. proletariat
Durkheim
creation of common culture, collective conscience
Weber
classes, parties, identities, must all align to have integration
Functional/Evolutionary of social integration
responses to external enviromental pressures
Conflict/Critical theory of social integration
competing interest os members of socities themselves