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59 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Status quo
the exisiting conditions or state of affairsm usually in the case the government and social structure
colony (New France, 13 colonies)
a group of emigrants or their descendants who settle in a distat territory but remain subject to or closely assoiciated with the parent country. England had many colonies, as did France and they often fought over the control of these (i.e. seven years war)
a french settler in New France who rented land from the seigneur
Militia Men (sometimes women in the colonies were also needed to serve in the militia)
citizens who had some military training and who were called to assist the army in time of war or other emergency, this was necessary in many colonies because the parent ountry didn't have the man power to send many troops for permanent patrol
coureur de bois
french traders who traveled to the camps of native peoples to trade goods for furs, this expanded not only the fur industry for the Frenh but also expanded the territory of New France and opened the unexplored parts for settlements
Glorious Revolution (marked the end of absolute monarchy in England)
when William of Orange invaded England and took the throne from James ll, it marked the first time in English history when the monarch was chosen by Parliament, not by birht right
Order of the Roman Catholic Church, were partners of the Company of a Hundred Associates. Went on missionaries in New France to try to convert the Huron. They even went as far as adopting he customs and language of the Natives. These missions killed off a lot of their allies (huron), because of the Old World diseases the Jesuits brought w/ them. It ws the religious disagreement and diseases that the jesuits brought with them on their missions that made the Huron nation vulnerable to attack.
Filles de Roi
young unmarried women (often orphans) who were sent to New France as brides for the settlers. Jean Talon thought of recruiting them in order to stabilize the colony. They instilled heroism and values upon the settlers; they were willing to work and helped increase the population. They were important in bringing stability to a nomadic society.
To make like England; to make like english.
Representative Government
a from of governing in which and elected few are chosen by the general public to administrate over them (such as democracy or republican)
Tennis Court Oath - June 1789
the event when the 3rd estate broke up from the rest and declared itself a new form of government (National Assembly). They then swore the Tennis Courth Oath pledging that they wouldn't disband until France had a new from of gov. and a constitution was written
Estates Generals (3)
the met only because Louis XVI's gov was in serious crisis. A semi-parliament in Franche, included representatives from the 3 social leves of France.
1st estate: clergy - 1% of pop. had 10% of land, no land tax and they could tax others.
2nd estate: novility - 1.5% of pop. Had 20% of land, exempt from most taxes.
3rd estate - Everyone else 98%, 70% of land. Burdened w/ most taxes.
Balance of power between 3 estates is that the first 2 can out vote the 3rd, even though the 3rd has 2x the pop. The 3rd estate (plus some poorer of the first 2) broke off and declared themselves a National Assembly
National Assembly (formed in 1789)
a political party in france. Fromed by the members of the 3rd estates' Generals the National Assembly vowed to create a new (democratic) form of government in Franche. Louis XVI was then forced to order the other 2 estates to join the National Assembly
Directory (2 house of legislator)
Political party after the Reign of Terro. Formed in 1795. New gov formed after the Terror ended, it was very corrupt and inefficient. It was a form of oligarchy, 5 men held executive power in france. The new gov. gave most of the power to people of prperty which signaled a return to special privileges for people with money. Only this group could vote and elect members to government. Napoleon later overthrew them. Directory was made of mostly the bourgeoisie and imposed the metric system and took away power from the Church; however the evonomy was a wreck with prices rising everywhere.
Part of a democratic gov. a national representative body having supreme legislative powers withing the state. Duriong all the revolutions (except industrial and american) Parliament was trying to get more power for itself for the people and ess for the absolute monarch; wanted a say in the way events were governed
Declaration of the Righs of Man (basis of the French Gov.)
a political document guaranteeing the French peopls rights and freedoms (aug 26 1789)Passed by the National Assembly in Late August. This document sets out basic human rights that governments may not overlook. It contains the ideas of John Locke. Voltaire. Montesquieu, and Rousseau. The declaration guaranteed freedom of thought and oppression, equality, presumed innocence, speech, religion, security, and property, and it pu tlimits on the power of the government (king could not longer make taxes). The word man means everybody including females.
Declaration of Independance
a document that stated the independence of the 13 colonies from Britian, mostly written by Thomas Jefferson (1776). It was formal statement that established the wishes of the American peoples to form their own country. It reflected many of the ideas of the philosophers in the Age of Enlightenment (especially Locke and Montesquieu). The document declared that all people in the Us have certain rights that no gov, can take away (life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness)
Jacobin (named after the Paris monastery of Saint Jacques)
A political club that started during the French Revolution. The Jacobins were members of the Jacobin Club, a political club that was formed for people that shared their view on the gov. The Jacobins were radical and eventually led the revolution. the Jacobins would often attack other clubs (girondists) for being too conservtive and they were responsible for the coming Reign of Terro. Eventually guillotined many Girondists.
group of people (mostly poor and violent people from Paris and the larger cities) They resented the bourgeoisie and were against reforms that would benefit the business class. They wanted the national government to lower prices and supply bread to the poor and formed mobs that roamed Paris. They suppored the radicals and were led by the fiery pamphlet writer Marat. They guillotined many well-intentioned pople including Madame Roland, a leader of the Girondist.
Girondist (named for the Gironde area of France)
Political club. Originally a branch of the Jacobin club) The Girondists were less radical than the Jacobins. They were too conservative as viewed by the other revolutionaries. Their learders included Madame Roland and Charlotte Corday. They Girondists and Jacobins struggle for power, which the Jacobins eventually won. Most Girondists were executed during the Terror.
the belief of one's own country is the best country. (love of one's cultural heritage) became a strong force during the 1800's. It united people in common causes, both good and bad. Persecution as well as patriotism, extreme nationalism is racism. Napoleon helped unleash nationalism on the world and hew knew it had to be used skillfully. Powerful feeling of nationalism helped cause wars (WWI & WWII)
the policy meant that business and industry would be as free as possible from government and regulation. The theory was that competition and self interest would provide the greatest good for the greates number of people. People were free to pursue profit without too many government regulation, they would be motivated to make their industries bigger. This created a wealthy and productive economy and the wealth created by the businesses would benefit everyone in society. However because of this worders were paid much lower wages to keep profits up.
a system of gov. A gov. that is controlled by the pople who live under it, answe4rs to the wishes of the people whse members are elected by the majority.
a form of gov in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution of laws or opposition etc) He can do whatever he wants and no one can oppose him on any grounds
Devine Right of Kings
Theory for monarchs to rule a state (introduced by James I in 1603)A anem given to the patriarchal theory of gov. especially to the doctrine that no miscondcuct and no dispossession can forfeit the right of a monarch or his heirs to the throne and to the ovedience of the poeple. The powers of monarchs came directly from God and that the rulers were God's representatives on earth. The ruler's decisions could not be questioned by ordinary people.
Constitutional Monarchy
limited monarchy. A monarchy in which the powers of the ruler are restricted to those granted under the constitution and laws of the nation (Charles II, William of Orange)
an absolute ruler; a sovereign unrestrained by law or constitution; a usurper of sovereignty. They are usually cruel and insensitive to the needs of other. Many of the absolute monarchs were tyrants which was why the people rebelled (James I, Charles I)
the government or authority of a tyrant; a country governed by an absolute ruler; hence arbitrary or despotic exercise of power; exercise of power over subjects and others with a rigor not authorized by law or justice or not requisite for the purposes of gov.
Absolute Monarch
a king, queen, emperor, or empress with unlimited power. He or she does not have to be authorized or is restricted by any other laws, constitutions, forms of gov. (louis XVI)
a form of gov. in which the supreme power is placed in the hands of a few persons' also those who form the ruling few. (the Directory)
Military Dictatorship
a from of gov/ in which the ruling power is backed up by the power of the military (cromwell)
a state in which the sovereign power resides in the whole body of the people and is exercised y representatives elected by them; a commonwealth; however the execution of Charles I did not make england a republic. The English republic "commonwealth" actualy came into being when the Rump Parliament voted to abolish the Monarchy and the House of Lords
a Protestant sect of people who practiced a simple form of Christian religion and were strict in their habits of dress entertainment etc. Puritans believed that stern laws were needed to keep people from straying into sin. The English were intolerant of the Purticans and forced many to leave the country (1621 a group of Puritans chartered the mayflower to Plymouth Rock)
a member of the Roman Catholic Church. although England was protestant neighboring Ireland and France was Catholic. It was the Catholic persecutions against the Protestants in France that helped contribute to the economic crisis that led to the revolution there. Charles I married a Catholic wife and that made him even more unpopular
Anglican (Church of England. a form of Protestant)
a member of the Church of England w/ the kind as its head, however there were many Stuarts (charles I, Charles II, James II) that had Catholic sympathies, This alienated the people of England from them.
violation of allegiance toward one's country or sovereign expecially the betrayal of one's country by waging war against it or by consciously and purposely acting to aid its enemies.
New Model Army
name for army that fought in the English Civil war (roundheads) a more modern army that parliament used to fight the Royalists. It was led by Cromwell. The New Model Army defeated the Royalists at two important battles; Marston Moor and Naseby.
the supporters of Charles I in the Civil War. aka royalists. When the English Civil War started there was no English army so both sides had to create fighting forces. The Cavaliers' so called for theyu were of noble blood and used to horseback fighting- were the king's supporters
the fighters for parliament in the Civil War. the soldiers of the New Model Army were called roundheads because of they cut their hair short. they were a formidable force and after defeating the Royalists they supported Cromwell's rule as Lord Protector.
Loyalists (1 in 5 people included African slaves, forced out of 13 colonies)
the people in the Thirteen Colonies and in Canada who remained loyal to the King during and after the American Rev. also called Tories. Declared loyalty to George III. Usually but not always Anglican. Soon persecuted everywhere.their properties were taken or burned
Patriots (people that supported the American Rev)
group of people that wanted to be independant from the British crown. Revelled and started the American Rev. Tried to invade Canada. Sought independance, attacked Loyalists and took power away from them. Did the boston Tea Party
a group of people that support monarchy. Monarchists are the same as Royalists; they both support the monarch and the monarchy system. In the American Revolution they were persecuted.
a hereditary ruling class; nobility. In france the lavitsh lifestyle of the aristocracy (at the expense of the commons) helped to trigger the French Rev.
the first French settlers of New France (canada). Many of them were part of the fur trade and became either coureurs de bois or voyageurs. they got to keep most of their culture and freedoms when they were taken over by the British.
Intolerable Acts
the nme given to a group of laws passed by the brit. gov which the Americans colonists felt they could not accept. Included Stamp Act 1779 (tax for all papers and legal documents), Quebec Act 1779 (gave much of New Franced its original territory back) Treaty of Paris 1763 (proclamation line cut them off from Ohio valley) Declaratory Act (permits crown to tax any part of its Empire) Molasses Act (tax for molasses), Sugar Act (tax on sugar) Quartering Act (billet Englsih soldiers), Tea Act (tax on tea) Boston Port Act (port closed to shipping) Massachusetts Gov. Act (gov was given to British elected officer removed) Administration of Justice Act (trials held in england rather than colonies)
Trade Unions
first started in 1824. Names of organizations devoted to improving conditions for their members. 1824 one of the factory acts allowed workers' associations to be legal and early forms of trade unions were formed. This allowed for workers to have some protection on the job and made life a bit easier for them.
a tyhpe of movment towards better agriculture. sped up after 1700. Consolidated small strips on land into large fileds. larger fields meant less time for farmers to work the land and could work it more profitably. However only wealthy farmers could take advantage of the enclosure system.
Factory system
new system developed to take advantage of the machinery in the Industrial Rev. because the new machinery invented were too large for a single person to operate the old cottage system was obsolete. The new machines required factories to store and operate. The switch from cottage system to factory system effected Britain in many ways. It created vast new cities w/ factory workers living in large housing developments. It made Britain extremely wealthy but was hard on the working people (bad conditions to say the least) People now also had to go to the factories to work, instead of home businesses and some people just couldn't travel the distance.
a new system of manufacturing developed during the Industrial Rev. w/ standardization, standard componeents could be used to make up a larger product and could be interchangeable w/ other products. if a part broke down, workers only had to replace the part, not the whole product. by setting machinery standars to the same in all factories, replaceable parts were developed. as well plants could produce all the componets first then assemble them increasing efficiency. Standardization paved the way for mass production.
Mass Production
movement to a new system of manufacturing. mass prod. took full advantage of standardization; it really revolutionized the way of manufacturing. Today virtually everything made uses mass production and standaradization. Madd prod. sky rocketed efficiency.
Division of Labor
the way work was divided among the workers in the factories during the Industrial Revolution. It could also be said of the division of labor between the clases in society during that period; w/ working lower-class families doing all the labor and still struggling to survive w/ the harsh conditions and low wages. on the other hand the uper and middle classes profited greatly w/ little physical work done.
Domestic Production
another term of home industy or cottage industy. Aperson w/ money to invest - a capitalist - paid people to make a particular product in their homes. The product was then collcted from their homes. Usually the price was fixed per item completed. It allowed the workers to work and stay at home to look after their family. On the other hand it was poorly paid (long hours for little return) and it was individual work w/o supporto from other workers. W. the new inventions for the Industrial Age domestic productions was basically obsolete.
form of business expansion; a body that is granted a charter recognizing it as a seprate legal entity having its own rights, privileges, and liabilites distinct from those of its members. As a business gorwsn they find it necessary to expand or to meet expenses. In these cases one option is to form a corporation and to "go public" or to sell shares of the company to investors. This allows for rapid expansion and spreading the risk among many people reduces individual risk. The joint-stock corporations seen todya have begun to really develop during the Industrial Age.
a state a country or organization can be in. a state where there is an absence of gov.; the state of society where this is no law or supreme power; a state of lawlessness; political confusion; often during anarchy chaos is high, production is basically shut down, violence and mobs are high as well as corruption.
Civil war (not to be confused w/ the English Civil War or the American Civil war)
name for a type of war. A contest between nations or states, carried on by force whether for defence, for revenging insults and redressing wrongs, for the extension of commerce, for the acquisition of territory, for obtaining and establishing the superiority and dominion of one over the other or for any other purpose; armed conflict of sovereign powers; declared and open hostilities. (Civil war the war in england between the Parliamentaries and Royalists from 1642-1648)
to give up or renounce. To surrender or relinquish as sovereing power; to withdraw definitely from exercising as a high office, station, dignity, as to abdicate the throne, the crown, the papacy. Note: Abdicate was held to mean, in the case of James II, to abandon without a formal surrender.
Bill of Rights
A legal document (1689) which declared of certain righs of subjects, enacted by the English Parliament. On of the fundaments in struments of constitutional law. It states in stautory form the outcome struggle between the Sutart kings and the Englsih Parliament. Its principles were accepted by william and Mary in the Declarions of righs as a condition for ascending the throne after the revoluion in which James II was dethroned (1688). It stated that certain acts of monarchs are illegal and henceforth prohibited; that englishmen possessed certain inviolable civil & political rights; that james had abdicated the throne & that William and Mary were lawful sovereigsn; and that no Roman Cathocil could ever be soverign of England. By its provisions and implications it gave political supremacy to Parliament and was supplemented (1701) by the Act of Settlement.
Reign of Terror (37 000 people were executed in this reign)
July 1793-July 1794. during this period the revolutionary gov. led by the Jacobins had extraordinary powers. Durthins this period any who disagreed w/ the Jacobins was eliminated. Many laws were passed (Law of Suspect) that gave the gov. to trial ane execute people on little or no evidence (this was against the Declarion of the Righs of Man)Anyone who stood against this was executed and not being able to produce a certificate of citizenship was executed. Robespierre was ruling like a dictator and no one could stand in his way.
a fort constructed in 1719. Was meant to protect the valuable St.Lawrence route from the British however due to poor construction (due to the cost cutting of Bigot) it was captured twice, once in 1745 (returned for Madras Is. in 1748) and again in 1758