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36 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
revolution
an overthrow of the government and social system of a country, usually by force
guillotine
an instrument for beheading by means of a heavy blade
philosophes
educated people who had theories about society and government
cash crop
a crop that is grown for export, not to feed the population
tithe
one tenth of one's annual income or produce from land (for the church)
inflation
a situation in which the price of goods rises quickly
monopoly
the exclusive right to sell a product to a group of people
tariff
a tax
infrastructure
the roads,canals, and other means of communication and travel within a community
deficit
the money the government is short on every year after it pays its bills
portfolio
the area of responsibility of a government official
catalyst
something that helps other things change
salon
a meet ing of intellectuals to discuss exciting ideas
bigotry
prejudice
censored
something one is forbidden to see, hear or read
romantic
someone who had an unrealistic view of life and expects "story book endings"
skeptic
one who questions or raises doubts
republican government
a government in which all power rests with the citizens who vote to elect their leaders
Estates General
a kind of parliament that meets only as the result of a royal command
mercenary
a paid soldier
constitution
a document that sets out the major laws and principles of a government
radical
someone who wants major change quickly
speculator
a person who deals in a product and hopes to take advantage of a sudden rise of fall in prices
allegiance
a formal declaration of loyalty
First Estate
Clergy - run the schools collected tithes, owned huge amounts of land
2nd Estate
Nobles - less than 2% population, only ones allowed to hold high office, don't pay taxes, not all nobles rich, in harrd times poor country nobles revive long forgotten feudal taxes
3rd Estate
around 98% population, includes peasants, labourers, middle class, had to work for free sometimes
why did the revolution start?
famines, unemployment is high, price of bread is high, peasants worked very hard for little amount of money, children were abandoned, money spent by the king came from taxing and exploiting the poor
Great Fear?
peasants believed that the king's soldiers and aristocrats would stop the revolution
Declaration of the rights of man?
this document sents out basic human rights that government may not overlook
Tennis Court Oath Pledge
that they would continue meeting until France had a new government
What did the National Assembly do in 1789?
they abolished all feudal rights and privileges and ended serfdum, they also declared all people equal before the law
Sans-Culottes
mostly poor people from Paris-resented bourgeoisie and were agains reforms that would help the business class. They wanted national government to lower prices and supply bread to poor. Attacked anyone againts the revolution - supported radicals
Jacobins?
Radical - leaders of the radicals- Jean-Paul Marat, Jacques Danton, Maximilien Robespierre
Sans-Culottes Leader?
Jean-Paul Marat
Girondists?
moderate - leader-Madame Roland