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100 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and no tolerance of opposition
fascism
a national policy of actively trading with foreign countries to foster peace and prosperity
internationalism
the willingness to go to the brink of war to force an opponent to back down
brinkmanship
a systematic attempt to overthrow a government by using persons working secretly from within
subversion
______ corporation; large corporations with overseas investments
multinational
the buildup of conventional troops and weapons to allow a nation to fight a limited war without using nuclear weapons
flexible response
the practice of teaching immigrant students in their own language
bilingualism
a person who believes government power, particularly in the economy, should be limited in order to maximize individual freedom
conservative
reducing a company in size by laying off workers and managers to become more efficient
downsizing
a person who generally believes the government should take an active role in the economy and in social programs but that the government should not dictate social behavior
liberal
the expulsion, imprisonment, or killing of ethnic minorities by a dominant majority group
ethnic cleansing
the basic currency shared by the countries of the European Union since 1999
euro
nuclear ______; the spread of nuclear weapons to new nations
proliferation
______ terrorism; violent acts against civilians that are secretly suported by a government in order to attack other nations without going to war
state sponsored
the use of violence by non-governmental groups against civilians to achieve a political goal by instilling fear and frightening governments into changing policies
terrorism
an act of rebellion against the established government
insurrection
an organization that is authorized by law to carry on an activity but treated as though it were a single person
corporation
an organization linked to a political party that often controlled local government
political machine
the separation or isolation of a race, class, or group
segregation
the actions used by one nation to exercise political or economic control over smaller or weaker nation
imperialism
relaxation of tensions between the United States and its two major Communist rivals, the Soviet Union and China
détente
belief that people in a territory should have the ability to choose their own government
self-determination
the act of granting pardon to a large group of people
amnesty
Factor in an experiment that researchers manipulate so that they can determine its effect
independent variable
Stress and health are thought to have a(n) ____________________ ____________________ since stress goes up as health deteriorates, or goes down.
negative correlation
Form of learning based on the consequences of actions
operant conditioning
Stimulus that causes an automatic response
unconditioned stimulus
The form of learning that keeps knowledge hidden until it is needed is called ____________________ ____________________.
latent learning
The type of learning that occurs when a person observes and imitates others is called ____________________ ____________________.
observational learning
Method of repeating information over and over to keep from forgetting it
maintenance rehearsal
Method of remembering information by relating it to information already known
elaborative rehearsal
Information stored as a(n) ____________________ code is stored according to its meaning.
semantic
Changing the thoughts one has in a particular situation
cognitive restructuring
Test question that shows if the test taker is answering questions honestly
validity scale
Cluster of symptoms that define or describe an illness in a cultural context
culture-bound syndrome
Intense, persistent feelings of anxiety caused by traumatic experience
post-traumatic stress disorder
The condition that results from limited resources combined with unlimited wants.
Scarcity
alternatives that must be given up when one is chosen over another.
Trade-off
a rise in the general level of prices.
Inflation
economic system in which private citizens own and use the factors of production in order to generate profits.
Capitalism
desire, ability, and willingness to buy a product.
Demand
a measure of responsiveness that ells us how a dependent variable such as quantity responds to an independent variable such as price.
Elasticity
the amount of a product that would be offered for sale at all possible prices that could prevail in the market.
Supply
the lowest legal wage that can be paid to most workers
Minimum Wage
any substance that serves as a medium of exchange, a measure of value, and a store of value.
Money
the dollar amount of all final goods and services produced within a country’s borders in a year.
Gross Domestic Product
the quality of life based on the possession of necessities and luxuries that make life easier.
Standard of Living
a state of the economy with large numbers of unemployment, supply shortages, and excess capacity in manufacturing plants.
Depression
people available for work who made a specific effort to find a job during the past month and who, during the most recent survey week, worked less than one hour for pay.
Unemployed
privately owned, publicly controlled, central bank of the United States.
Federal Reserve System
government administrators
Bureaucracy
a complex network of voluntary associations, economic groups, religious organizations, and many other kinds of groups that exist independent of government
Civil Society
a person whom a member of Congress has been elected to represent
Constituent
government in which the people rule
Democracy
the art and practice of conducting negotiations between nations without arousing hostility
Diplomacy
a system in which power is divided between the national and state governments
Federalism
the institution through which the state maintains social order, provides public services, and enforces binding decisions on citizens
Government
elected official that is already in office
Incumbent
the power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions of local, state, or national governments unconstitutional
Judicial Review
the authority of a court to rule on certain cases
Jurisdiction
the legal process by which a person is granted citizenship
Naturalization
the effort to control or influence the conduct and policies of government
Politics
a government in which voters hold sovereign power; elected representatives, responsible to the people, exercise that power
Republic
the supreme and absolute authority within territorial boundaries
Sovereignty
the blending or fusing of minority groups into the dominant society
assimilation
knowledge, values, customs, and physical objects that are shared by members of a society
culture
judging others in terms of one's own cultural standards
ethnocentrism
the process of learning to participate in a group
socialization
the ability to see the link between society and self
sociological imagination
broad ideas about what is good and desirable shared by people in society
values
a distorted, exaggerated, or oversimplified image applied to a category of people
stereotype
rewards or punishment that encourage conformity to social norms
social sanctions
anything that stands for something else and has an agreed upon meaning attached to it
symbol
behavior that departs from societal or group norms
deviance
The exact position of a place on the earth's surface.
Absolute Location
A center where cultures developed and from which ideas and traditions spread outward.
Cultural Hearth
The complex community of interdependent living things in a given environment.
Ecosystem
Group of people who share common ancestry, language, religion, customs, or combination of such characteristics.
Ethnic Group
A central point and the surrounding territory linked to it.
Functional Region
Native to a place.
Indigenous
Relying on one another for goods, services, and ideas.
Interdependent
The average number of people in a square mile or square kilometer.
Population Density
The pattern of population in a country, a continent, or the world.
Population Distribution
A place united by specific characteristics.
Region
Of or relating to people who live in the country.
Rural
Producing just enough food for a family or a village to survive.
Subsistence Agriculture
Of or located in the city.
Urban
Satisfying the demands of dissatisfied powers in an effort to maintain peace and stability.
Appeasement
Self-governing.
Autonomous
A camp where prisoners of war, political prisoners, or members of minority groups are confined, typically under harsh conditions.
Concentration Camp
An absolute ruler.
Dictator
A person who speaks out against the regime in power.
Dissident
An upper class whose wealth is based on land and whose power is passed on from one generation to another.
Aristocracy
A person who uses unexpected maneuvers like sabatoge and subterfuge to fight an enemy
guerilla
A limit or reduction in armed forces or weapons.
Disarmament
The unique cultural identity of a people based on common language, religion, and national symbols.
Nationalism
Ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause.
Propaganda
Payment made to the victor by the vanquished to cover the costs of a war.
Reparation
A system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns and controls the means of production.
Socialism
A government that aims to control the political, economic, social, intellectual, and cultural lives of its citizens.
Totalitarian