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75 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What theory do scientists believe as to how the first Americans came to this country?
Scientists believe that hunters came across the land bridge between Asia ans North America. They followed large animals.
What two countries formed the land bridge?
Asia and North America
What is the name of the area that linked Asia and North America?
The _______ Age was a time thousands of years ago when the earth was much colder than it is today.
Ice Age
Which groups of Indians were Mound Builders?
Why did the mound builders" build large mounds/hills in their civilization?
They built large mound to bury their dead. The Adena and the Hopewell also buried tools and jewlery.
How did the cliff dwellers build their homes? What were they made out of?
The Cliff Dwellers built their homes on the sides of cliffs. They built them multi-level, like apartments. They were made out of mud and stone.
The underground rooms in the cliffs were known as what?
Because many American Indians settled in almost every region in North America before Christoper Colombus came, they were known as what?
Paleo Indians
How did geography help the Northwest Indians survive?
The geography helped the Indians because the land provided food and the water (ocen and rivers) provided food and water as well. The Indians hunted and gathered food and also fished. They fished salmon and dried it for future consumption.
What were some of the resources Indians in the Northwest used to survive?
The Indians in the Northwest used fish, shellfish and deer. They also collected berries to eat. The Indians used wood for fires and for housing. They also used fresh water.
How did the Northwest Indians build their homes? What type of material did they build their homes with?
The Indians in the Northwest built large wood homes. They carved tall totem poles from tree trunks and placed them at the entrances of their homes. The pole were carved with stories about the family. The Northwest Indians built their homes of cedar and spruce which was taken from the forest.
The hosts of the ________ ceremony served a large amount of food and gave valuable gifts to their guests.
What is the land like in the Southwest?
Low, flat deserts, but there are high plateaus. It receives very little rain.
What American Indian group had killed horse riders and warriors?
The Comanche.
Why did the Southwest Indians have to rely on irrigation to grow their crops?
The Southwest Indians relied on irrigation to grow their crops because the area in which they lived got little rain. They needed to dig ditches to divert water from rivers and streams to the areas where they grew their crops.
The Hopi Indians are also known as ____________.
Pueblo Indians.
Where do the plains stretch across America?
The great plains stretch from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains and from Texas to Canada.
What was the importance of the Hopi Bean Dance?
The Bean Dance was important to the Hopi because it was a ceremony performed to dance and pray for a good harvest. It allowed the Hopi to express their beliefs.
What was at the center of many Hopi customs?
The Hopi felt that they were the caretakers of what?
The land.
What is a staple?
A staple is a main crop that is used for food.
The Hopi grew yellow,blue,red, white and purple corn.
Where did the Hopi store their corn?
The Hopi stored their corn in storage rooms in their pueblos. They grew enough to last the whole year.
The Hopi are among the oldest Indian groups living in the northeastern part of what state?
How did Hopi Indians store things?
The Hopi stored food and water in containers. They dug clay and shaped it into containers. They were the first in the world to "fire" or cook their clay containers to make it strong and hard.
What were two methods used to get water to crops?

Planting seeds deep so the roots would get moisture from the earth.
What was life like on the eastern plains?
Rainfall made growing crops successful. Indians made homes or lodges using bark, earth and grass. THe lodges protected the Indians from the cold weather. In the spring and fall the Eastern Plains Indians farmed in their villages. In the summer and winter they hunted buffalo.
Which Indian group had skilled horse riders and warriors?
The Commanche Indians.
What type of homes did the Commanche Indians live in?
What kind of government did the Commanche Indians have?
The Commanche's were split into groups and each group had a Chief. The Chiefs were the leaders. There wre Chiefs for War and for Peace. The Chiefs would meet and discuss things important to all groups.
Describe life on the Western Plains.
The dry land made farming difficult. THe area had important resources such as buffalo. The buffalo gave the Indians of the Western Plains all they needed to live. They ate their meat. They used their bones to make tools and wove their hair to make rope. The tails were made into fly swatters. They used the skins or hides for many things including: covers for their shelters,clothing,drums and shields for fighting.
Were the Western Plain Indians Nomads?
Yes. They followed buffalo herds.
What is a Nomad?
A nomad is a person who moves around and does not live in one place.
What did Nomads use to move around?
The Indians used a travois to carry their belongings. It is like a sled. It was usually pulled by a dog.
What else were the travois poles used for?
The poles were used to set up teepees.
How did the Indians on the western plains hunt buffalo?
On horseback.
What group of Indians lived in the East?
The Haudenosaunee, also known as the Iroquois.
What did the Haudenosaunee do to make their nation stronger?
They made peace with other Indian groups and formed the Haudenosaunee League. It was a confederation. A government in which separate groups join together, but local leaders still make most of the decisions for their group.
The League was a union of which groups?
The Mowhawks,Oneidas,Onondagas,Cayugas,Senecas and later the Tuscarora.
Could the Haudenosaunee League make a decision without all groups involved?
No. All groups needed to agree prior to a decision being made.
What was a wampum?
A wampum was a belt made of pieces of carefully cut seashell. They were used to symbolize agreements. The wampum was used like beads.
Did the Indians barter for goods?
Yes. The Haudenosaunee bartered for goods. They traded goods without using money.
What did the Haudenosaunee live in?
Why did woodland Indians grow corn , beans and squash together?
When the corn stalks grew they supported the bean vines. The squash palnts grew below the vines and created shade which prevented weeds from growing below the corn stalks.
Corn, beans and squash were known as what?
the three sisters.
a huge thick sheet of slowly moving ice.
movement from one region to another.
farming or growing plants
A group of people living together who have systems of government,religion and culture.
A spanish word for town.
Extra. More than one needs.
A large feast that could last several days.
A group of related families.
A way of suplying water to crops with streams,ditches or pipes.
A main crop that is used for food
A special event at which people gather to express their beliefs
A lodge is a home made using bark, earth and grass. Lodges protected people from the cold stormy weather.
A person who moves around and does not live in one place.
Similar to a sled. Made of two poles pulled by a dog.
short description of the main points in a piece of writing
A large house made of wood poles and bark.
Who were the people of the longhouse?
The Haudenosaunee. They lived and cooked in the houses.
a type of government in which separate groups of people join together, but local leaders still make decisions for their group.
Belts made of carefully cut and shaped seashells. Sometimes used to symbolize agreements.
Trading goods without using money.
Pacific Northwest
Type of Shelter: Large House
Materials Used: Boards cut from cedar trees
Unique Features: Totem poles were placed at entrances or used to support a roof. House heated by central open fireplaces.
Type of Shelter: Pueblo
Materials Used: Stone and Adobe bricks
Unique Features: Ladders connected several stories.Rooms heated by coal fires instead of wood.
Western Great Plains
Type of Shelter: Teepee
Materials Used: Buffalo skins and wooden poles
Unique Features: Easy to pack up and move. Flaps on teepees acted as vents to let out smoke or let in fresh air.
Northeastern Woodlands
Type of Shelter: Longhouse
Materials used: Bark and wooden poles
Unique Features: Long enough tohold several families and keep sveral fires going.
Southeastern Woodlands
Type of Shelter: Roundhouse
Materials Used: Wooden poles covered with clay and bark.
Unique Features: Used for dances and ceremonies. Sometimes used as shelter for the elderly.
A Pawnee Lodge is made of what materials?
Bark, earth and grass
The Tlingit were one of the largest American Indian groups in the Pacific Northwest. Where did they build their homes?
along and near the coast and rivers. This made hunting and trade easier.
How did the Tlingit use wood?
They used tree bark to make clothing, hats, capes and raincoats. They wore cedar bark balnkets to keep them warm in the winter.
What did the Tlingit divide themselevs into?
They divided themselves into clans. A group of related families.
What did they live in?
The families lived in large houses. They put in room dividers so each family had their own area. They shared common areas around fires to talk and cook.