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89 Cards in this Set

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what seas were important for the greeks?
aegean, ionian, and black sea
why was sea travel and trade important for the greeks?
greece was poor in natural resources
what kind of land was in ancientgreece?
rugged mountains
how much of greece did mountains cover?
3/4
why was greek never able to support a large population?
little fertile farmland or fresh water for irrigation
what was the climate of greece like?
varied temperatures
mycenaeans
some of the people who migrated from the steppes and settled around the greek mainland
mycenae
mycenaeans leading city
located on a steep, rocky ridge and surrounded by a wall
bronze age
2000-1100 bc
kings during this time had bronze weapons
crete
mycenaeans invaded crete, ruled by minoans
trojan war-people fighting
mycenaeans vs. troy, city in anatolia
why was the trojan war fought?
legend: a greek army besieged and detroyed troy bc a trojan youth had kidnapped helen, wife of greek king
what is another reason that the trojan war couldve gone on?
struggle for control of a crucial waterway in the aegean sea
dorians
new group of people who moved into this war-torn countryside of mycenae after the trojan war. spoke a dialect of greek and were distant relatives of greeks
what happened during the dorian age?
-economy collapsed and trade eventually came to standstill
-greeks temporarily forgot the art of writing during the dorian age
-no written records exist
homer
blind man who composed epics about the trojan war
what 2 epics did homer write?
The Iliad and The Odyssey
epics
narrative poems celebrating heroic deeds
myths
tradional stories the greeks wrote about their gods
what were greek gods like?
they had human qualities..fought and competed w/ each other but lived forever
what were myths written for?
sought to understand and explain the mysteries of nature and power of human passions
polis
greek city state- a city and its surrounding countryside
acropolis
a fortified hilltop in a polis where male citizens fathered to conduct business
monarchy
-state ruled by a king
-rule is hereditary
-some rulers claim divide right
what gov. practiced monarchy?
practiced in mycenae
aristocracy
-state ruled by nobility
-rule is hereditary and based on land ownership
-social status and wealth support rulers authority
where was aristocracy practiced
practiced in athens
oligarchy
state ruled by small groups of citizens
-rule is based on wealth
-ruling group controls military
where was an oligarchy practiced
sparta
direct democracy
-state ruled by its citizens
-rule is based on citizenship
-majority rule decides vote
where was direct democracy practiced?
athens
phalanx
the most pwerful fighting force in the ancient world
-foot soliders called hoplites stood side by side holding a spear in one hand nd a shield in the other
tyrant
powerful individuals who gained control of the government by appealing to the poor and discontenteed for support
what was different about sparta?
it built a military state
helots
sparta conquered messenia and the messenians became peasants forced to stay on the land they worked. spartans collected yearly crop
what 2 groups governed sparta?
1. assembly-composed of all free adult males, elected officials, and voted on major issues
2. council of elders-proposed laws on which assembly voted
spartan society
1. citizens-included ruling families who owned the land
2. noncitizens but free, workers
3. helots
4. slaves
education in sparta
military traning for men
woman played sports but could not vote
what were woman in athens expected to do?
stay home and raise children
why did spartans have no art?
they were too into their military
who were considered citizens in athens?
-only free adult males
cylon
athenian nobleman -established a tyranny in athens and had draco write athens first code of laws
persian wars who was it between
between greece and persian empire
persian wars-why?
greeks were settled in anatolia but persians conquered the area.greeks won
consequences of persian wards
athens became leader of an alliance of 140 city-states called the delian league
drove persians away
pericles 3 goals for athens
1. to strengthen Athenian democracy
2. to hold and strengthen the empire
3. to glorify athens
pericles
wise and able statesman that led athens during its golden age
how did pericles strengthen democracy?
-increased number of paid public officials
-
what did pericles use money for?
to enlarge power
build strong navy-needed bc it helped athens strengthen the safety of its empire
beautify athens
classical art
art with the standard values of order, balance, and proportion
phidias
scuulptor in athens
tragedy
-serious drama about common themes such as love, hate, war, or betrayal
-featured a main chacter, or tragic hero
famous people who wrote tragedies in athens
aeschylus, sophocles, and euripedes
comedy
contained scenes with slap-stick situations and crude humor
people who wrote comedies
arisophanes
peloponnesian war between who?
athens and sparta
peloponnesian war-why?
ATHENS BECAME VAST NAVAL EMPIRE
many people believed war was inevitable..just fought
end of peloponnesian war
athens surrended to sparta and lost its empire, power and wealth
philosophers
thinkers in greek determined to seek truth
what did freekt thinkers base their philosophy on?
1. universe is put together in an orderly way and subject to absolute and unchanging laws
2. people can understand these laws through logic and reason
sophists
group of philosophers who questioned people's unexamined beliefs and ideas about justice
socrates
critic of sophists
believed absolute standards did not exist for truth and justice
encouraged greeks to go further and question themselves and their moral character
plato
student of socrates
wrote down convos of socrates
wrote The Republic
what was platos idea of a perfectly governed society?
all citizens would fall naturally into three groups:
1. farmers and artisans 2) warriors
3) the ruling class
smartest person would be philosopher king
aristotle
philosopher who questioned the nature of the world and of human belief, thought, and knowledge
invented a method for arguing according to rules of logic
applied his methods to problems in psychology, physics, and biologytutored alexander, son of king philip of macedonia
macedonia
kingdom just north of greece
macedonians
spoke language related to greek
considered themselves greeks but greeks considered them outsiders
philip II
king of macedonia-organized the army
what did philip plan to do?
invade greece
demosthenes
athenian orator who tried to warn greeks that king philip and his army were gonna unite against them
after philip conquered greece, what did he plan to invade?
persia
why did he never get to invade persia?
a former guardsman stabbed him to death
alexander the great
philips son who became king of macedonia when he died
did alexander defeat persia?
yes
darius III
king of persian who tried to crush mecedonians but couldnt so he tried to negotiate a peacce settlement but alexander didnt accept and conquered the egyptians
what happened when alexander went to find darius?
he found him dead, killed by one of his provincial governors
what else did aleander conquered?
capitals of babylon, susa, and persepolis, india
hellenistic culture
greek culture that blended with egyptian, persian, and indian influences
koine
the popular spoken language used in hellenistic cities like alexandria
alexandria
african hhellenistic city-foremost center of commerce and hellenistic civilization
aristarchus
atronomer who came up w/ 2 conclusions:
1. the sun was at least 300 times larger than the earth
2. proposed that earth and planets revolve around the sun
eratosthenes
closely calculated the earths true size
director of alexandrian library
computed earths circumference
euclid
matmetician who opened a school of geometry in alexandria
wrote elements about geometry compositions and proofs
archimedes
hellenistic scientist who correctly estimated the value of pi
explained the law of lever and created the compound pulley
invented archimedes screw
zeno
greek philosopher who founded the school of philosophy called stoicism
what did stoics believe?
a divine power controlled the universe
people shud live in harmony w// natural law
human desires, power, and wealth were dangerous distractions
epicurus
founded the school of though called epicureanism
what did epicurus teach?
the universe was composed of atoms and ruled by gods who had no interest in humans
only real objects were those perceived by 5 senses
proposed that main goal of humans was to achieve harmony of body and mind
colossus of rhodes
bronze statue that stood more than 100 feet high
-was created on the island of rhodes
-was one of the 7 wonders of the ancient world
-was knocked down by an earthquake