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214 Cards in this Set

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By 1840, what had happened to most of the land owned by Native Americans?
Native American had ceded their land to the gov't and left the state
How much cotton did MS produce around the 1840s and what effect did it have on the economy?
Mississippi produced more cotton than any other state and some of teh welthiest people in America lived and owned land in MS, but at the same time, this wealth was slaves who made up more than half the population lived in poverty as well as many whites in the hills and smaller communities
What was one of the first issues to reveal social divisions in antebellum Mississippi?
The location of the state capital.

Antebellum means before the war, in the south it specifically means before the civil war
What does antebellum mean?
Antebellum means "before the war" specifically in the south it means "before the civil war"
What were some of the concerns about Washington as the Capital of MS?
Although most Mississippians live in the Natchez District, the people in the eastern and northern parts of the state wanted a capital that was closer to them, they believed Washington was too small and too near the merchant and planter elite of Natchez
When and What did the legislature do to start the search for a new capital and what area did they choose for the new capital?
In 1821,they formed a committe to locate a capital in the center of the state. They chose LeFleur's Bluff on the Pearl river, named the town Jackson
Why was LeFleur's Bluff chosen as a place for the state capital?
It was the center of the state and on the Pearl river where Louis LeFleur had traded with the Choctaw.
Who was the town, in which the new state capital would be located, named for?
Andrew Jackson, in honor of the hero of the battle of New Orleans
When did the state legislature meet in newly-built Jackson for the first time?
December 1822
When was the capital built for the legislature and a mansion for the governor?
In the 1840's
What happened during the "Era of the Common Man"?
Most white males in the US gained the right to vote and hold office
When was Andrew Jackson elected President of the US?
In 1828
What social statement developed out of the "Era of the Common Man" and what was the most visible evidence?
That wealth and education no longer guaranteed access to positions of authority, and if they did it was because the poor and uneducated elected them. This was evidenced by the election of Andrew Jackson as President, who had not inherited any wealth and had little formal education
Even though Jackson had not inherited wealth and had little formal education, what was his social status at the time of his election to the Presidency?
He had become a lawyer, a wealthy landowner on the frontier, and a national hero as a result of his battles against Indians and British
The Mississippi Constitution of 1832 reflected what?
The Jacksonian Democracy
What are some of the changes made from the 1817 Constitution in the 1832 version?
Many 1817 provision were kept, but the changes were important..judges were elected by voters for a specific term instead of being appointed for life,the tax-paying and property ownership requirements of voting were eliminated so all white men could vote and hold office, Representation in the legislature was determined only by population
What were the results of the popular vote on the Mississippi Constitution of 1832?
No results, it was not submitted for a popular vote
In the early to mid 1800s what was extremely important to Mississippi's economy and society?
In what way did the MS Const. of 1832 address slavery?
The constitution prohibited slavery if they were to be imported into MS and sold. The legislature passed a law to enforce this provision, but it was never applied or inforced...
What did the inclusion of the slavery provision in the MS Const. of 1832 mean?
That slavery was a troubling issue, even for slaveholders.
Why was the issue of slavery troubling for most people in the South?
People questioned the morality of owning people; others feared the possibility of slave revolts; others still recognized that white society ievitable would be divided into 2 groups..wealthy slave owners and the poor
Even though state government was important, most of the needs of the states' citizens were met by ___________.
County governments
After 1832, who governed each county?
an elected board of police
In 1832, what type duties did the county board of police have?
They levied taxes for the operation of county affairs and imposed special taxes to construct courthouses/jails and support of the poor. They appointed supervisers to build and maintain roads and bridges,set prices and approved persons who could operate hotels,run ferries or sell alcohol..paid school tuition for poor children and operated public schools for white children
In 1832, who were the other county officials other than the board of police and what were their duties?
tax assessors and tax collectors, probate judges to decide civil matters and settle estates, Sheriff who enforced the law, county judges presided ober trials
Why were elected county officials responsive to the needs of the citizens of their county?
Because the citizens were voters and that is how they are elected into office
Why was the state capital located in Jackson?
Because it was located in the center of the state.
What provisions of the Constitution of 1832 showed the impact of Jacksonian democracy?
Judges and most state offices were elective,more equal and balanced representation...all men could vote and representation was by population
The removal of what made possible the rapid growth of the state?
Removal of the Indians
Define the federal government policy known as assimilation? Did this policy work?
The theory that if Indians relied on agriculture rather than hunting and would need less land and could then co-exist with the settlers... they policy did not work because the Indians did not want to change their lifestyles
By the time of the War of 1812, why had the federal gov't abandoned their assimilation policy?
Because of the possibility that the Indians may side with either the British or the Spanish in their disputes with the US
Who was Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa (also known as the prophet)?
Chief of the Shawnee Indians that tried to unite the various Indian tribes, such as the Creek Indians, to resist white settlers
Who was Pushmataha?
One of the chiefs of the Choctaw, who persuaded his people not to join Tecumseh
What did the federal gov't do to move the Indians west of the Mississippi River so there would be more land available?
The federal gov't negotiated a series of treaties, which eventually required the Choctaw and Chickasaw to leave MS
While there were many Indian nations in MS when the French first landed near Biloxi, who remained in 1783?
The Choctaw and Chickasaw
In 1786, what treaty did the US and the southeastern Indians, including the Choctaw sign that had little impact until 1798 when Spain gave up its hold on the Natchez District and the US established the MS Territory?
The Hopewell Treaty
In 1801, which Treaty provided for the withdrawal of the Choctaw from the Natchez District?
The Treaty of Fort Adams
What were the provision of the Treaty of Fort Adams in 1981?
The US received 3 million acres of land and the right to build a road through Choctaw territory. The Choctaw got several thousand dollars of merchandise and the promise,which was never kept, that non-Indians would be removed from the Indian lands.
What road through Choctaw territory did the Treaty of Fort Adams give the US the right to build?
The Natchez Trace
What did the Treaty of Mount Dexter in 1805 provide for?
It gave the US over 4 million acres of land in south MS i exchange for canceling the debts Indians owed Indian traders and annual pensions for various Indian leaders
What is the name of one of the Choctaw chiefs who received a pension out of the Treaty of Mount Dexter in 1805?
White Mississippians claimed they feared attacks from the Choctaw and demanded what?
That the Indians be subjected to state laws.
In 1820 who negotiated the treaty of Doak's Stand?
Andrew Jackson and Thomas Hinds, a veteran of the battle of New Orleans and a future Congressman
What did the Treaty of Doak's Stand provide for the US and the Choctaw?
It gave the US 5 million acres, including the land where Jackson would later be located (Lefleur's Bluff). the Choctaw were promised land west of the MS
Why did the Choctaw Indian reject the land given to them by the Treaty of Doak's Stand in 1820?
Because the land west of the MS was not suitable and had already been settled by whites.
What happened to Pushmataha when after he arrived in Washington to renegotiate the Treary of Doak's Stand?
He died there and received a military funeral in honor of his service in the War of 1812 where he helped the US fight the Creek Indians in a battle to gain land
What did the Choctow Indians do after they rejected the land provided to them by the Treaty of Doak's Stand and did the Choctaw leave MS as promised in the Treaty?
Several Choctaw chiefs, including Pushmataha traveled to Washington to renegotiate the, the Choctaw continued to refuse to leave MS
After Andrew Jackson was elected President in 1828, the federal gov't insisted on what with the Indians?
That they be subjected to state laws and state courts
What treaty did the Choctaw sign in 1830?
The Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek
What did the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek provide for the US and the Choctaws?
The Choctaws ceded the rest of their land in MS (over 10 million acres) and agreeing to move to what is now Oklahoma
At the time that the Choctaw signed the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit in 1830 how many Choctaw existed?
Eighteen thousand Indians, several hundred whites, and five hundred black slaves.
What did one provision in the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit provide for Indians who wanted to stay in MS, how many stayed?
The treaty allowed Indian to stay, but they had to register with the gov't and the process was so difficult less than seventy families succedded in staying
Who is Greenwood Leflore?
Pushmataha's nephew and one of those who helped negotiate the treaty. He remained in MS and became a cotton planter. He eventually owned 15,000 acres and four hundred slaves. He also served on the legislature.
In 1832 what treaty was signed between the US and what Indian tribe?
In 1832 the treaty of Pontotoc Creek was signed between the US and the Chickasaw Indians who numbered less than 5,000 and 1,000 black slaves.
What were the terms of the Treaty of Pontotoc?
The Chickasaw ceded north MS to the federal gov't and moved west.
What is the Trail of Tears?
The trek of the Indians to Oklahoma, then called Indian Territory is known as the Trail of Tears because of the number of people who died along the way.
What eventually happened to the Seminole and the Choctaw Indians several years after the signing of the 1832 Treaty?
The Seminole waged a seven-year war before some of them were allowd to stay in the Florida Everglades. Some Choctaw's returned to small communities in MS, by 1860 there were approx 1,000 Choctaw in MS
What did the federal gov't establish in the early 1900's for the remaining Choctaw Indians in MS?
The federal gov't established the present reservation i Neshoba County and permitted tribal gov't
Which government was responsible for Indian relations?
The federal government
What treaty made with the Indians in 1786 did not require the Indians give up any of their land?
The Hopewell Treaty
Name the five treaties by which the Choctaw and Chickasaw ceded their MS land to the Federal government.
1. Treaty of Fort Adams - 1801 (3 mil acres)
2. Treaty of Mount Dexter - 1805 (4 mil acres)
3. Treaty of Doak's Stand - 1820 (5 mil acres)
4. Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek - 1830 (over 10 mil acres)
5. Treaty of Pontotoc Creek - 1832 (N. MS)
What is the Trail of Tears?
The Indian removal by the US federal government was called the Trail of Tears because of the trek of the Indians to Oklahoma, then called Indian Territory. This trek is known as the Trail of Tears because of the number of people who died along the way.
Early in the 18th century,___________ brought enough African slaves to _____________ (which at the time included MS)to require legislation called the ________________.
the French brought slaves to
The Black Code
Which French settlement at Natchez prospered partly because of its slave labor who cleared the land and raised tobacco and indigo? Who did the slaves help destroy this settlement in 1729?
Fort Rosalie...the slaves helped the Natchez Indians destroy this Fort in 1729
What happened to the slaves after the French destroyed the Indians?
It is unknown, but it is speculated that the French may have used them in battles against the Natchez and Chickasaw. It is known that the French used black troops, both slave and free
When did the French lose the Natchez District to the English?
In 1763
What happened to the black population after the French lost the Natchez District to the English in 1763?
It grew slowly
At the out break of the American Revolution how many settlers in the District was black? then what happen to the black population?
One out of every five settlers was black. More arrived during the Revolution, some from South Carolina, as British loyalist fled with their slaves...under Spanish rule during and after the Revolution, the black population increased further, slaves soon made up 40% of the population
What were the two primary occupations for slaves?
Agriculture and the production of lumber products
What provided cash income for farmers?
Food products, tobacco, indigo and cotton
What did the Spanish especially encourage the production of?
Tobacco and indigo
Why did farmers after trying other crops increasingly turn to cotton?
The crops were hard on the soil, which led to declining productivity
Who invented the cotton gin? in what year? what did the cotton gin do?
In 1793, Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin...which made it easier to separate cotton seeds from the cotton fibers
How was the first cotton gin designed and built in MS?
A traveler brought a sketch of Whitney's gin to Natchez in 1795 and Daniel Clarke, Sr. a planter, gave the sketch to a slave named Barclay who designed and built the first gin in MS
What became the primary cash crop in the South and what is an accurate description of its importance to MS.
Cotton, sometimes more accurately described as "King Cotton"
What makes MS well suited to the production of cotton? what is the disadvantage?
The land is fertile, the growing season is long, the many navigable streams made it economical to ship to cotton to New Orleans or Mobile. This disadvantages are the land was subject to erosion and to exhaustion
What does it mean when a body of water is navagible?
It means it is passable by boat
Men like ___________ of __________ county constantly experimented to learn the most efficient and productive farming methods. Improved strains or types of cotton increase ______________.
Martin Phillip of Hinds County

Improved strains of cotton increase productivity
Who are the two people that developed an improved and most productive strain of cotton in MS and the South? What is the improved strain called?
Rush Nutt of Rodney and Henry Vick of Warren County
The improved strain of cotton is called the Petit Gulf cotton
Even though many whites raised cotton and corn with the labor of their own families and perhaps a few slaves, most cotton was grown with ____________ on relatively large farms or _____________.
slave labor

In what areas of the state were the most concentrated populations of slaves found?
Where most of the cotton was produced
By 1840, how did the black population compare to the white population in MS?
there were more blacks than whites
In 1860, slave ownership was concentrated...give 3 facts about slave owners...
1. there were fewer than 31,000 slave owners, about 9 percent of the white population
2. half of the slave owners owned no more than five slaves
3. only 19 slave owners had more than 300 slaves
What work was required of the slaves in the production of cotton?
Land cleared, soil broken and prepared for planting, once planted land had to be oed, cotton plants thinned or "chopped", then the cotton had to be picked
What other work did slaves do in addition to help produce cotton?
cooked, cleaned house, tended the livestock, made clothes, cared for small children
What type work did skilled slaves do?
Blacksmiths, carpenters, and brick masons
How were slaves able to earn enough money and sometimes buy their freedom?
Slaves were often hired out to other plantations or to townspeople and could sometimes earn enough money to buy their freedom
Who supervised the slaves' labor?
the owner, but if he did not live on the farm, an overseer is hired to supervise a group of slaves
Describe a typical work day for the slaves.
Work began around sunrise and continued until sunset, work days were longer at harvest time, women might have to spin thread or weave cloth at night, Sunday was a day of rest or either work ended at noon on Sunday, Christmas after the crop was harvested was a holiday that lasted for days
How were slaves disciplined?
slaves could be whipped at the owner's discretion, but the use of the lash had only limited value...a whipped slave could not work until he or she recovered. The threat of punishment made them work, but did not make them work eficiently
What type of incentives were given to the slave by the owners for good behavior?
extra clothing, pocket knives, time off from work, a party or money
What was a typical meal for the slaves like?
usually ate their meals together, the amount of food was adequate but the basic diet was not necessarily nutritious enough to maintain good health
What was the most important part of the slaves diet? what type foods added to the basic meal?
Pork and Corn - most important part

Fruits, vegatables, game and fish added to the basic meal
Describe the medical care provided to the slaves.
the slave owner provided medical care, a doctor was called for serious cases however medical treatment was not that advanced and could sometimes do more harm than good
What was the most important part of the slaves diet? what type foods added to the basic meal?
Pork and Corn - most important part

Fruits, vegatables, game and fish added to the basic meal
Describe the housing provided to the slaves by the owners.
very simple log cabins without windows or floors with the only furniture being bunks and chairs or cottages with brick chimneys, window, and wooden floors, sometimes cabins were made of brick, used mainly for sleeping Or bunkhouses where men women and children slept together without privacy even though farmers later learned it was better to allow a family to share a cabin
According to MS law, slaves were ____________ with no rights and many specific ______________. The ____________________ no longer existed.
French Black code
Under MS law,name some restrictions that were put on slaves?
Families could be split up, needed written permission to leave the plantation, not supposed to learn to read or write, white observer had to be at any gatherings including religious, could not testify in court
Within the restriction of the MS law, what type of community did the slaves create?
slave marriages had no legal basis so strong bonds of affection linked husbands/wives and parents/children, the young/old looked out for each other and despite the law they learned to read and write
What role did religion play in the slaves' lives?
the adopted and adapted Christianity. slave owners saw this as a way to control slaves since they regarded Christianity as a path to freedom in this life and the next, sometimes attended church with their owners but they preferred religious meetings led by black preachers, enabled them to express emotions hidden from whites
Who is Nat Turner?
In 1831, Nat Turner a slave preacher in Virginia led a revolt that caused the deaths of at least sixty whites and 100 blacks
Because whites feared slave revolts even rumors of a revolt led to what?
Beatings and executions without legal process
Were there ever any rebellions or revolts by slaves in MS? What happened in Madison County the summer of 1835? What happened in Adams County in 1861?
No, but in the summer of 1835 blacks and whites in Madison County were killed because there were fears of a revolt and in 1861 a rebellion was planned in Adams Co but it was revealed before it could take place.
How did slaves sometimes resist their owners?
sometimes overt like owners/overseers died attempting to discipline slaves, owners and family poisoned at dinner, ran away
sometimes subtle like machinery broke down, barns/cotton gins/bales of cotton burned, the workplace slowed
What did the Black code provide about FREED slaves?
The black code established under French rule and abolished when the French no longer controlled the MS/Port of New Orleans... provided that a freed slave was entitled to all of the privileges of any free citizen
What kind of protection to the slaves did the Black Code law provide?
The Black code, established when territory under French rule, provided that when owners sold slaves they could not separate husbands/wives or children under fourteen from their parents. Owners could not mistreat slave, free them when they are old or sick,they could not be forced to work on Sundays or religious holidays.
What was the Black Code law issued in 1724?
Established when territory under French rule, these laws applied only to blacks and covered every aspect of slavery and society, granting slaves on a few rights. It covered marriage,the ownership of property,travel,gathering in groups--all were severly restricted. Attempts to escape and resistance to white authority were punished cruelly.
When was the Black Code issued and who issued this set of laws?
The set of laws called the Black Code was issued in 1724 by Governor Bienville while the territory (Natchez, Port of New Orleans at the Mouth of the MS river) was under French rule. When the land came under US control (1798) and then became the 29th State, the French black code was abolished and the slaves were under MS law and rule, which regarded slaves as property with no right and severe restrictions

All blacks in MS were slaves
Who is William Johnson?
The most prominent free black who lived in Natchez. He was a barber who owned town lots, a farm, and slaves.
What happened to William Johnson and why was his case never prosecuted?
He was murdered...and because blacks could not testify and the only witnesses were blacks his alleged killer could not be prosecuted

Freed blacks lived under many restrictions
What did slave owners have to provide to the slaves he set free?
Owners could not free slaves unless they provided funds for the freed slaves to leave the state
What did new laws in the 1830s require free black to do? Why and what was the result?
Free blacks were required to leave the state unless the county board police granted them permission to remain.
Because the state feared that free blacks might help organize a slave revolt, which resulted in a decline in the number of free blacks in MS
In the 1830s what sparked a land boom and a population explosion in MS?
The removal of the Choctaw and Chickasaw Indians
What are "flush times"?
It means a time of prosperity...In antebellum (pre civil war)MS flush times were everywhere
Why was antebellum MS considered prosperous or flush times? What followed this period of prosperity?
Land was cheap, price of cotton was high,banks extended credit easily and issued paper money far in excess of the specie or gold/silver in their vaults. The boom ended abruptly followed by the most severe depression faced by the US at that time
Which war made Andrew Jackson popular?
The War of 1812
What President's policies brought economic disaster to MS?
President Andrew Jackson
What did President Jackson do that started the economic disaster to MS?
He had a bitter political battle w/ the 2nd Bank of the US (1816-1836) which handled financial transactions for the federal gov't and issued paper money. Because of the banks political connections,he had all federal funds withdrawn and placed in "pet banks". These state banks increased the amount of paper money in circulation, causing the value of the money to drop,had no specie to back, nevertheless settlers used it to buy federal land
What were the two actions by the federal government brought economic disaster under Jackson's Presidency?
First, the Specie Circular of 1836 required that gov't land be paid for w/ specie rather than w/ paper money.
Second, the Distribution Act required the surplus money in the federal treasury paid to the states in specie.
What is the Specie Circular of 1836?
It required that government land be paid for with specie (gold/silver) rather than with paper money... one of the reasons of the depression of 1837-1841
What is the Distribution Act?
It required the surplus money in the federal treasury paid to the states in specie (gold/silver)...part of the cause of economic depression of 1837-1841
What caused the Panic of 1837? What did it lead to?
1.Jackson transferring federal funds from the 2nd bank of the US to "pet banks"
2.The Specie Circular of 1836 and the Distribution Acts requirement that pay has to be in specie, not paper money
3.The "pet banks" could not pay the treasury bills in gold and silver, the banks collapsed, people panicked and tried to exchange their money for specie
Lisa ways the depression had an impact on the economy in MS?
federal gov't foreclosed (took back) land bought on credit, cotton prices fell, banks disappeared, bonds guaranteed by the state were declared no longer valid an remain upaid to this day, people lost their property to the state because they couldn't pay the taxes, counties failed to turn tax money over to the state, state gov't cashed their paychecks for less than face value, funds invested in banks reserved for public education were lost
What President was born on the Carolina frontier in 1767?
Andrew Jackson
List three facts about the Planters Bank of Natchez.
1.It was state-owned Planters bank of Natchez and established in 1830
2.It was one of Jackson's "pet banks" and the depository for state funds
3.By the middle of 1837, bank could no longer redeem paper money w/ specie and had to close its doors
How did the state respond to the closing of the Planters Bank of Natchez?
The state established the Union Bank of Mississippi and raised the needed capital by issuing bonds.
What happened to the bonds issued by Union Bank of MS during the depression of 1837-1841?
The bonds were signed by Governor Alexander McNutt,sold to investors and in 1841, the reality of paying interest his and the state repudiated the bonds
What happened to the bonds issued by Union Bank of MS during the depression of 1837-1841?
The bonds were signed by Governor Alexander McNutt,sold to investors and in 1841, the reality of paying interest his and the state repudiated the bonds
In the 1850s, how did MS voters respond to the repayment of the bonds issued by Union Bank and Planters Bank?
state voters approved nonpayment of the bonds,the state constitution amended in 1875 to prohibit repayment (Section 258). Foreign bondholders have attempted to get MS to pay the bonds back w/ interest, the latest attempt in 1992 to get section 258 declared unconstitutional, but the Court ruled in favor of MS, and the case is on appeal.
The health of Mississippi's economy depended on __________________________.
having adequate transportation
_______________ carried cotton and other goods on the MS river, and on smaller rivers life the Yazoo,BIg Black, Pearl and Tombigbee.
Most of Mississippi's cotton went to __________ by way of _______________; some cotton went down the _________________ to ________________.
New Orleans
From Mobile and New Orleans, MS cotton was shipped to the textile mills of _____________ or ___________________
New England or Great Britain
Although poor roads made travel difficult, what eventually solved the problems of land transportation?
Why was it difficult to build railroads in MS?
Bridges had to be built over the many rivers, creeks and streams, raising money after the panic of 1837 was difficult,
What did the first stage of railroad construction in MS consist of?
First stage: railroad built to bring cotton to a river port,
Why did Natchez and Vicksburg attempt to build rail links to Jackson? What happened?
Natchez and Vicksburg realized the economic importance of bringing cotton to their towns, they tried to build rail links to Jackson and tap the cotton plantations of Hinds, Madison and Rankin counties...the Natchez line failed, but the Vicksburg line became one of the most successful railroad in the state
Two examples of short railroads built to bring cotton to a river port are...
Port Gibson and Woodville
What happened to the Jackson Vicksburg railroad after it began operation in 1838 and was a success?
The track was extended eastward reaching Jackson 2 yrs later in 1840, then it bridged the Pearl River and began to lay track down in Meridian, which was eventually linked when the Jackson/Vicksburg railroad merged w/ the southern railroad in 1861
What did the second stage of railroad construction in MS consist of?
Second stage: occurred when small railroads were combined into trunk (main)lines joining the major cities in the nation. By 1858, the New Orleans, jackson, and Great Northern connected New Orleans and Jackson; the MS Central linked Jackson and Memphis.
The Memphis and Charleston Railroad in Tennessee provided a link to the ________________
Atlantic Coast
Why did public education develop slowly in MS?
Because most counties could not afford to spend the money
After 1836, the ____________ authorized the counties to fund schools, and most counties supported schools by the time of the _____________________. Parents who were able had to ___________ for public education.
Civil War
By 1860, how many children were part of the MS public school system? Describe the school terms in the public system.
over 30,000 white children (only 1/3 of the school age white children), there were 1100 public schools, there were no schools for black children
School terms were short, usually less than 3 mos and only taught reading, writing and arithmetic
Was higher education provided by the state?
No, it was usually the responsibility of private and religious orgnanizations
What two colleges provided education opportunities to young men throughout the antebellum period? Are they still in existence today?
Jefferson College in Washington County
and Oakland College in Claiborn County,...No, neither survived Civil War and Alcorn State now occupies the site of Oakland College
What is the name of a private school that existed during the antebellum period that is now in existence today?
Mississippi College in began as ampstead Academy in 1826, in 1850 it became a Baptist institution
When was the University of MS established and what did the university do during the Civil War?
Established in 1840, closed during the Civil War because most of the students and faculty enlisted in the Confederate Army
What are the two largest Christian denominations in MS?
Methodists and Baptists, also have Presbyterian, Episcopal and Catholic but smaller in number
In which decade did the state population increase most rapidly?
In the 19th century, with the removal of the Indians, resulting in more room for growth.
_____________produced the wealth that made MS one of the wealthiest states in the Union
What is the policy of trying to force Indians to farm like whites, so that they would act like whites?
Term that means "before the war"
The French law that regulated slaves
The Black Code
Law that said that government land be paid for with gold or silver istead of paper money
Specie Circular
One of the most famous free black men in Antebellum Mississippi, He was a barber in Natchez
William Johnson
What invention helped make cotton "king" in Mississippi
The cotton gin
What are the two largest religious denominations in Antebellum Mississippi
Methodist and Baptist
Term that refers to gold and silver money
Term for a large farm
Mississippi's most important cash crop
Most of the people in early Mississippi lived in this area
Term for a crop that is grown for sale
Cash crop
Choctaw cief who discouraged his people from going to war with the settlers
President of the US who helped negotiate the Treaty of Doak's Stand
Andrew Jackson, negotiated treaty before he was President
Shawnee chief who tried to unite the tribes to fight the settlers
Nephew of Pushmataha who became a planter and a legislator
Greenwood LeFlore
One of Mississippi's first capitals (not Natchez)
The best form of cotton developed in Antebellum times
Petit Gulf cotton
Future state where many of Mississippi's Indians were sent
Location of Mississippi's Choctaw reservation
Philadelphia, MS
Mississippi's capital as chosen by the state Legislature

There were many slave revolts in ANtebellum MS

Mississippi's economy was very bad in Antebellum times

MS Indians resisted being moved off their lands.

Andrew Jackson represented the Era of the Common Man

The Black Code was MS state law until the Civil War

Most slave owners in MS owned 1,000 slaves or more

Slaves were concentrated in areas of heavy cotton production

MS Indians were always treated fairly by the government

The Board of Police ruled the counties during Antebellum Mississippi

The Hopewell Treaty removed all Indians from Mississippi

MS law provided very little protection for slaves
After 1832, the board of police governed counties, name three ways they governed the counties?
1. levying taxes
2. appointing supervisors to build roads and bridges
3. approving persons who could operate hotels and ferries
The most successful railroad in MS was built between what two towns?
Vicksburg and Jackson
The largest religious groups in Antebellum MS
Methodist and Baptists
The Specie Circular of 1836 required what?
that government land be paid for with specie
Mississippi's Indians were moved to Oklahoma in 1832 on what was known as what?
the trail of tears
In MS, the slaves were concentrated in what area?
areas where cotton was produced
MS law prohibited slaves from what?
learning to read and write
testifying in court
attending any gathering
List three way that slaves resisted their owners
ran away
broke machinery
Poisoned their owners at dinner
Why were blacks required to have an Employment Certificate?
It had to be witnessed by two white men, and kept with him at all times or they would be arrested and rented out by the Sheriff to whoever would pay the small fine, this helped to keep the free men working on the farm
He led a slave uprising in Virginia
Nat Turner
Because it was the most important cash crop in the south cotton was given this title
King cotton
Term that refers to a large farm with several slaves
Mississipp's capital was named after this President
Andrew Jsckson
Pushmataha's nephew who became a wealthy farmer and helped negotiate the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek
Greenwood LeFlore
The term that refers to the local governments that controlled MS during the Antebellum times
Board of Police
Jackson is located in this area
LeFleur's Bluff
The Choctaws were completely removed by this treaty
Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek
The body of Water Jackson is located near
Pearl River
The belief that if Indians could be taught to farm and act like whites then everyone would get along
Shawnee chief who wanted to unite the Indians against the white man
THe best type of cotton grown in MS
Petit gulf cotton
The most famous black man in Natchez during Antebellum times
William Johnson
Treaty that promised Choctaws land in Oklahoma in return for 5 million acres of land. Many of the Indians refused to leave
Treaty of Doak's Stand
Term that means before the war
Choctaw chief who talked his people out of going to war against the white man
French law that regulated slavery
Black code...when the French were gone the Black code was gone
A condition by which one person owns another
The Chickasaws gave up their land with this treaty
Treaty of Pontotoc
Tragic movement of Indians to Oklahoma
Trail of Tears