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109 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Monopoly
complete conrol over a market or product
Republic
Form of government in which the people choose the leaders who represent them
Mosque
Muslim house of worship
democracy
form of government in which the people have supreme power
Polytheism
worship of many gods
Culture
All the things that make up a people's way of life
Climate
average weather of a place over a period of 20-30 years.
Interdependence
Mutual dependence of country's on goods, resources, and knowledge from other parts of the world.
Import
goods brought into a country
Export
Goods sent to markets outside a country
Monotheism
Belief in one god
Nuclear Family
traditionally, a wife, husband, and their children
Extended Family
Several generations living in one household
Hydroelectric power
energy produced by moving water
Inflation
economic cycle marked by a sharp increase in prices
Tropics
area between the tropic of cancer and the tropic of capricorn
Dictatorship
Form of government in which a ruler holds power by force
Cataract
large waterfalls, Victoria Falls
Subculture
group of people within a society who have their own separate beliefs, values, and customs
Escarpment
Steep clif
Racism
Belief that one race is superior to another
Ethnocentrism
judging other contries culture by the standards of one's own culture
Free trade
international trade without restrictions
Heiroglyphics
ancient form of egyptian writing that uses pictures and symbols to represent words and sounds
Pharaoh
ruler of ancient egypt
Desertification
the change of semi-desert land into desert land
Lineage
group of distant kin who trace their descent to a common ancestor
Sultan
ruling monarch in a Muslim country
Defualt
failure to repay a loan
City-state
Large town that has its own government and controls the surrounding countryside
Abolition
movement to end slavery
Age-grade
In some African societies, all people born in the same year.
Subsistance farmer
a farmer who produces enough harvest to supply personal needs and has little or no surplus
Ethnicity
Attatchment to one's own ehtnic group
Consensus
a common agreement
Polygamy
practice of having more than one spouse
Hacienda
A large plantation in Latin America
Elite
small group of people with high social status
Diaspora
migration or scattering of a homogenous people
Socialism
System in which the government owns and operates major businesses and controls other parts of the economy
Multinational Corporation
huge business enterprises iwth branches in many countries
Boycott
Refusal to buy certain goods or certain services
Democratization
Moving toward a free system of government
Secede
break away and withdraw especially as a group from a country or an organization
Guerrilla warfare
By small bands of power against a larger power.
(HIT AND RUN) in the words of Vicky
Feudalism
system of government in Europe during the Middle Ages, as well as in Japan during the late 1100s, under which local lords ruled the land but were bound by ties of lotalty to higher lords and the monarch or emperor
Sect
religious group
Dialect
regional version of a language, with its own words, expressions, and pronunciations
Economic sanctions
cutting off trade with another country to pressure it to change its policies
Subcontinent
large landmass that juts out from a continent
Apartheid
rigid separation of races by law in South Africa
Non-alignment
policy that did not favor either the United States or the Soviet Union during the cold war
Samurai
Japanese warrior knights
Decipher
determine the meaning of something written in code
Purdah
among Hindus and Muslims, the complete seclusion in which some women live
Rajah
hereditary Aryan chiefs who ruled the villages
Atman
In Hinduism, the essential self of every individual, which, in turn is part of a universal soul that is also called atman
Varna
four classes into which the Aryans divided the people
Brahmen
In Hinduism, the single, supreme force or reality of the universe
Stupa
shrines containing the remains of Buddha or other holy persons.
Dharma
In Hinduism, the duties and obligations of each caste.
Karma
in Hinduism, the belief that every deed, mental or physical, in this life affects a person's fate in a future life.
Reincarnation
in Hinduism, the belief that the soul is reborn in various forms.
Nirvana
in Buddhism, the condition of having no desires
Monsoon
seasonal wind that dominates the climate of South Asia
Dynasty
ruling family
Satygraha
Gandhi's method ("truth force") of nonviolent resistance to end injustice.
Tenant farmer
farmer who rents land from a large landowner and pays the owner either in cash or with a portion of the crop
Liberation theology
movement in the Roman Catholic Church that urges the Church to take a more active role in changing social conditions that contribute to poverty.
Secular
worldly or unrelated to religion
Civil disobedience
use of nonviolent means to resist civil laws considered to be unjust
Coalition
ruling alliance of several political parties
Propaganda
spread of ideas to promote a cause or damage an opposing cause
Parliamentary democracy
government ruled democratically by a national representative body that has supreme legistlative powers.
Loess
yellow-brown soil that winds carry across the North China Plain into the Yellow River
Land reform
government program in which ownership of farmland is redistributed
Leeching
dissolving and washing away of the soils nutrients by heavy rains
Buffer state
small country located between two large, hostile powers
Cottage industry
small businesses conducted in the home
Plebiscite
direct popular vote on a single question or issue
Totalitarian state
nation in which he government controls every aspect of citizens' lives through a single-party dictatorship
Calligraphy
fine, ornate handwriting
Dynastic Cycle
rise and fall of Chinese rulers, according to the Mandate of Heaven
Proletariat
industrial working class
Ideograph
symbol used to express an idea such as beauty, joy, or justice
Infant Mortality
rate at which infants do not survive at birth
Extraterritoriality
principle allowing westerners accused of a crime in China to be tried in special, western-run courts instead of in Chinese courts
Kowtow
low bow expressing respect and submission to the Chinese emperor
Sphere of influence
area of a country in which the foreign nation has special economic privileges, such as the right to build railroads and factories
Embargo
complete halt to trade
Commune
community in which all property is held in common, living quarters are shared, and physical needs are provided for in exchange for work at assigned jobs
Collective farm
farm operated and managed under government direction
Donatario
Portuguese landowners of huge tracts of land in Brazil
Sepoy
Indian troops who served in the British army
Pampas
in South America, the grassy plains that stretch from Argentina into Uruguay
Capitalism
free market economic system in which the means of production are owned and operated by individuals for profit
Conquistador
Spanish conquerors of Latin America
Regionalism
strong local traditions that divide people within a country or region
Untouchables
lowest level of Aryan society
Cabildo
councils established by Spain to govern the towns founded by Spanish settlers in Latin America
Viceroy
official who rules in place of a king
Maize
corn
Mercantilsm
theory that a country's economic strength depended on increasing its gold supply by exporting more goods than it imported
Geography
study of people, their environments, and their resources
Coup d'etat
revolt, often by military leaders, against a nation's government
Oligarchy
system of government in which a small elite has ruling power
Caudillo
Latin American military leader who seizes power and rules as a dictator
Peon
Indians in Latin America who were forced to work for large landowners in order to pay off a debt
Peninsular
Official sent from spain to rule Spanish colonies in Latin America