Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/47

Click to flip

47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
4 PRIMARY INGREDIENTS OF COMMUNICATION
1. THE COMMUNICATOR, THE MESSAGE, HOW THE MESSAGE IS COMMUNICATED, AND THE AUDIENCE
ATTITUDE
A TENDENCY TO EVALUATE A PERSON, OBJECT, OR IDEA WITH SOME DEGREE OF APPROVAL OR DISAPPROVAL
MEDIA CONTAGION
THE MEDIA CAN MAKE US MORE EMOTIONAL AND FEARFUL BY SHOWING US FRIGHTENING IMAGES AND TELLING US SCARY AND DISTURBING DETAILS ABOUT EVENTS THAT HAVE OCCURRED.
FACTORS INCREASING EFFECTIVENESS OF COMMUNICATION
CREDIBILITY, TRUSTWORTHINESS AND ATTRACTIVENESS.
COGNITIVE COMPONENT OF AN ATTITUDE
THE THOUGHTS THAT PEOPLE HAVE ABOUT AN ATTITUDE (THOUGHTS)
AFFECTIVE COMPONENT
A PERSON'S EMOTIONS AND FEELINGS TOWARD A PARTICULAR ATTITUDE (FEELINGS)
BEHAVIORAL COMPONENT
PERSON'S ACTIONS WITH RESPECT TO AN ATTITUDE (ACTIONS)
THURSTONE'S SCALE
LOOKS AT THE EXACT DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ONE RESPONDENT'S ATTITUDE AND ANOTHERS.
LIKERT SCALE
MEASURES RANGE OF AGREEMENT. ONE OF THE MOST POPULAR METHODS FOR MEASURING ATTITUDES. USES A MULTIPLE CHOISE FORMAT. A RESPONDENTS TOTAL SCORE WOULD BE CALCULATED.
GUTTMAN SCALE
PRODUCES SCORES WITH UNIQUE MEANINGS. USES A HIERARCHY OF ATTITUES RANGING FROM LEAST EXTREME TO THE MOST EXTREME.
SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL SCALE
MEASURES CONNOTATIVE MEANING OF THE ATTITUDE OBJECT, THAT IS IT'S IMPLIED MEANING. USES A 7 POINT CONTINUUM
BOGARDUS SOCIAL DISTANCE SCALE
MEASURES ATTITUDES TOWARD VARIOUS RACIAL OR NATIONALITY GROUPS. ASSIGNED SCORES TO RESPONDENTS THAT WOULD INDICATE THEIR ATTITUDES TOWARD MEMBERS OF VARIOUS GROUPS.
FRAMING PERSUASION
THE WAY THE ADVERTISEMENT IS WORDED OR FRAMED CAN MAKE A PRODUCT OR IDEA SOUND BETTER THAN IT IS. (INSTEAD OF A PRODUCT THAT IS SIMILAR TO ANOTHER, ONE WOULD SAY "NOTHING IS BETTER THAN THIS PRODUCT".
FAMILIARITY OF PRODUCTS
INDIVIDUALS MAY PURCHASE PRODUCTS ON THE BASIS THAT THEY ARE FAMILIAR WITH THEM. PERHAPS THEIR PARENTS USED THEM.
TIMING OF MEDIA INFORMATION
DURING POLITICAL CAMPAIGNS, A CONTROVERSIAL LEAKING OF INFORMATION REGARDING A CANDIDATE WILL BE LEAKED JUST BEFORE THE ELECTION
EDUCATION
THE ACT OF IMPARTING KNOWLEDGE OR SKILL
PROPAGANDA
THE ACT OF SYSTEMATIC DISSEMINATION OF A GIVEN DOCTRINE
CENTRAL ROUTE TO PERSUASION
WEIGHING ARGUMENTS AND CONSIDERING THE RELEVANT FACTS THAT ARE GIVEN. CENTRAL ROUTE PROVIDES SPECIFIC INFORMATION OF A MORE TECHNICAL NATURE. OFTEN LEADS TO MORE PERMANENT ATTITUDE CHANGES
PERIPHERAL ROUTE TO PERSUASION
THIS IS A MORE FLUFF DISPLAY OF THINGS. A SET OF CUES ARE PRESENTED IN HOPES IT WILL TRIGGER ACCEPTANCE FROM THE PUBLIC. MOST OFTEN LEADS TO TEMPORARY ATTITUDINAL CHANGES.
SLEEPER EFFECT
THERE IS A DELAY IN PERSUASION. PEOPLE FORGET THE SOURCE OF INFORMATION OR HOW THE INFORMATION CONNECTS TO THE SOURCE OF THE MESSAGE
CREDIBILITY OF SPEAKING STYLES
THOSE INDIVIDUALS WHO CAN SPEAK RAPIDLY ARE CONSIDERED MORE CREDIBLE. THEY ARE ALSO HARDER TO INTERRUPT. IT ALSO SEEMS THEY HAVE THOUGHT THINGS THROUGH.
ATTRACTIVENESS AND LIKEABILILTY OF THE SPEAKER
WE WANT TO LIKE SOMEONE BEFORE WE LISTEN TO WHAT THEY ARE PROMOTING.
SIMILARITY IN THE SPOKEPERSON
WE LIKE PEOPLE WHO ARE SIMILAR TO US AND WHO HAVE OUR VALUES, TASTES AND LIFESTYLE.
EDUCATION LEVEL OF THE AUDIENCE
HIGHER EDUCATED AUDIENCES PREFER A MORE ANALYTICAL, LOGICAL APPROACH TO SELLING.
MOST EFFECTIVE FORMS OF MEDIA PERSUASION
PEOPLE PREFER THE MEDIA IN THE FOLLOWING FORMS WITH MOST PREFERRED FIRST. LIVE, VISUAL TAPES, AUDIO AND WRITTEN.
INOCULATION EFFECT
WHEN WE ARE EXPOSED TO A BRIEF INTRO TO AN ARGUMENT, WE WILL THEN PREPARE OUR DEFENSE OF OUR POSITION FOR THE FULL ARGUMENT.
OPINION
WHAT AN INDIVIDUAL BELIEVES TO BE FACTUALLY TRUE
ATTITUDE
WHAT A PERSON BELIEVES AND FEELS TO BE FACTUALLY TRUE
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
ASSOCIATION OF A STIMULUS WITH A RESPONSE. PAVLOVS DOGS FOR EXAMPLE
OPERANT CONDITIONING
SOMETHING THAT ENCOURAGES OR DISCOURAGES THE LIKLIEHOOD OF SOMETHING HAPPENING AGAIN
SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
THE WAY IN WHICH WE LEARN ATTITUDES BY OBSERVING AND IMITATING OTHER PEOPLE. WE LEARN PATTERNS AND BEHAVIORS FROM THOSE AROUND US.
ADJUSTMENT FUNCTION (KATZ)
ATTITUDES THAT HELP TO SATISFY OUR NEEDS, REACH GOALS AND AVOID UNDESIREABLE OUTCOMES
EGO-DEFENSIVE FUNCTION
ATTITUDES CAN ALSO PROTECT OUR EGOS OR SELF IMAGES
VALUE-EXPRESSIVE FUNCTION
REVEAL WHO WE ARE. REFLECT OUR CENTRAL AND TRUE BELIEFS AND VALUES
BALANCE THEORY (HEIDER)
COGNITIVE THEORY IS EXPLAINING HOW WE FEEL COMFORTABLE WHEN PEOPLE AGREE WITH US AND WHEN PEOPLE WE DISLIKE DISAGREE WITH US (CONSISTENCY)
THEORY OF COGNITIVE DISSONANCE (FESTINGER)
A STATE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DISCOMFORT THAT OCCURS WHEN PEOPLE RECOGNIZE THAT THEIR COGNITIONS ARE INCONSISTENT
THREE CONDITIONS REGARDING COGNITIONS
1. THEY ARE CONSONANT - THE RELATIONSHIPS FIT TOGETHER
2. IRRELEVANT - ONE ELEMENT HAS NO BEARING ON THE OTHER ELEMENT.
3. DISSONANT - A STATE OF TENSION OCCURS BECAUSE THE COGNTIONS ARE INCONSTENT WITH ONE ANOTHER
POST DECISION COGNITIVE DISSONANCE
DISSONANCE CREATED IN THE DECISION MAKING PROCESS THAT LEADS INDIVIDUALS TO INCREASE THEIR DESIRE FOR THEIR CHOSEN ALTERNATIVE AND DECREASE THIER DESIRE FOR THE OTHER OPTIONS.
ESCALATION REGARDING DISSONANCE
ONCE A SMALL COMMITMENT, ATTITUDE, BELIEF OR BEHAVIOR HAS BEEN MADE, IT SETS THE STAGE FOR INCREASING COMMITMENT TO FURTHER JUSTIFY THE COMMITMENT MADE
SELECTIVE EXPOSURE REGARDING DISSONANCE
WE ONLY SEEK INFORMATION THAT SUPPORTS OUR WORLD VIEW. WE BOLDY REFUTE ANY QUESTIONING OF OUR VIEWS.
EXTERNAL JUSTIFICATIONS REGARDING DISSONANCE
LOOK FOR EXCUSES WITHIN SITUATIONS TO HELP DEFEND ACTIONS OR BEHAVIORS.
INTERNAL JUSTIFICATIONS
ACTUALLY CHANGING YOUR ATTITUDE SO THAT IS NO LONGER INCONSISTENT WITH YOUR BEHAVIOR
SAYING IS BELIEVING PARADIGM
ACTUALLY BELIEVING YOUR OWN LIES
COUNTER ATTITUDINAL ADVOCACY
HAVING TO ADVOCATE FOR SOMEONE OR SOMETHING YOU DON'T PERSONALLY BELIEVE IN
SELF ESTEEM REGARDING DISSONANCE
HIGH SELF ESTEEM CREATES THE HIGHEST LEVELS OF DISSONANCE BECAUSE OF THE GREAT TENSION THAT EXISTS BETWEEN BELIEFS AND BEHAVIOR
REASONED ACTION MODEL (FISHBEIN AND AZJEAN)
THE BEST PREDICTION OF AN INDIVIDUAL'S BEHAVIOR ARE IN THEIR INTENTIONS.
PLANNED BEHAVIOR MODEL (AZJEAN)
THIS IS THE COMPONENT OF PERCEIVED BEHAVIORAL CONTROL. WHETHER OR NOT THE BEHAVIOR IS PLANNED, SPEAKS TO THE CONNECTION BETWEEN THE BEHAVIOR AND ATTITUDE.