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43 Cards in this Set

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AGGRESSION
PHYSICAL OR VERBAL BEHAVIOR INTENDED TO HURT SOMEONE PHYSICALLY OR PSYCHOLOGICALLY
AGRESSIVE ACTION
INTENTIONAL BEHAVIOR AIMED AT CAUSING EITHER PHYSICAL OR PSYCHOLOGICAL PAIN
HOSTILE AGGRESSION
ACT OF AGRESSION STEMMIING FROM A FEELING OF ANGER AND AIMED AT INFLICTING PAIN OR INJURY. HOT AGRESSION
INSTRUMENTAL AGGRESSION
INTENTION TO HURT ANOTHER PERSON, BUT THE HURTING TAKES PLACE AS A MEANS TO SOME GOAL. COOL AND CALCULATED AGRESSION
EROS
FREUDIAN TERM FOR "LIFE INSTINCT" WHICH IS GUIDED HUMAN BEHAVOR TOWARD THE PRESERVATION AND REPRODUCTION OF LIFE AND THAT AGRESSION RESULTS WHEN THIS INSTINCT IS BLOCKED.
THANATOS
FREUDIAN TERM FOR "DEATH INSTINCT" WHICH IS AN INSTINCTUAL DRIVE TOWARD DEATH WHICH LEADS TO AGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR
HYDRAULIC THEORY
AGRESSIVE ENERGY MUST COME OUT OR IT WILL BUILD UP AND CAUSE ILLNESS.
EVOLUTIONARY ADAPTION (LORENZO)
WAR IS ROUTED IN A HUMAN INSTINCT FOR AGGRESSION THAT HELPS US PROTECT OUR FAMILIES AND FOOD SUPPLIES.
CONCORDANCE
THE DEGREE OF SIMILARITY BETWEEN DIFFERENT TYPES OF TWINS
ATAVISTS (LOMBROSO)
EVOLUTIONARY THROWBACKS WHO WERE BIOLOGICALLY PREDISPOSED TOWARD ANTISOCIAL BEHAVIOR
AMYGDALA
STIMULATION OF THIS PORTION OF THE BRAIN CAUSES VIOLENT OUTBURST IN OTHERWIDE GENTLE ANIMALS.
TESTOSTERONE
A HORMONE ASSOCIATED WITH AGRESSION. MEN HAVE TEN TIMES MORE TESTOSTERONE THAN WOMAN. THIS MAY EXPLAIN WHY MEN ARE MORE AGRESSIVE THAN WOMEN.
EMPATHY
AN EMOTIONAL RESPONSE THAT IS ORIENTED TOWARD ANOTHER PERSON AND INVOLVES CONCERN FOR THAT PERSON'S WELFARE
EXCITATION TRANSFER THEORY
A THEORY THAT PHYSIOLOGICAL AROUSAL (FROM PHYSICAL EXERCISE, VIOLENT MOVIES, EROTICA AND NOISE ) AT ONE POINT IN TIME CAN INFLUENCE AN AGGRESIVE RESPONSE LATER
RELATIONAL AGGRESSION
SOCIAL FORM OF AGGRESSION SUCH AS SABOTAGING RELATIONSHIPS, EXCLUDING OTHERS AND GOSSIP.
FRUSTRATION-AGRESSION THEORY
AGRESSION IS ALWAYS A CONSEQUENCE OF FRUSTRATION
FRUSTRATION OCCURS WHEN?
WHEN SOMETHING PREVENTS US FROM ENJOYING AN EXPECTED REWARD
DISPLACEMENT
THE TENDENCY FOR PEOPLE TO DIRECT THEIR AGGRESSION TOWARD A SAFE TARGET RATHER THAN THE REAL SOURCE OF THEIR FRUSTRATION
SCAPEGOAT
A TARGET ONTO WHICH AGGRESSION IS DISPLACED
CATHARTHIS
BLOW OFF STEAM, OR GET SOMETHING OFF OUR CHEST
COGNITIVE NEO ASSOCIATION MODEL (BERKOWITZ)
OTHER REASONS FOR AGGRESSIN OTHER THAN FRUSTRATION. A THEORY THAT WHEN PEOPLE FEEL BAD EITHER THROUGH PERSONAL INSULTS, STRESS OF PHYSICAL PAIN, THEY TEND TO BE ANGRY AND AGGRESSIVE
ROAD RAGE
A FORM OF AGGRESSION THAT IS CREATED WHILE DRIVING IN HOT HUMID, POLLUTED AREAS WHILE EXPERIENCING BUMPER TO BUMPER TRAFFIC.
CUES FOR AGGRESSION
THE FINGER PULLS THE TRIGGER, BUT THE TRIGGER MAY ALSO PULL THE FINGER. THE IDEA THAT CUES IN THE ENVIRONMENT PLAY A ROLE IN DETERMINING THE KINDS OF RESPONSE THAT FOLLOWS FRUSTRATION. SEEING GUNS, KNIVES OR BASEBALL BATS CAN HELP INCITE AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR
FLIGHT OR FLIGHT RESPONSE
FACTORS THAT DETERMINE WHETHER A PERSON WILL FLIGHT OR FIGHT IN A SITUATION.
1. GENETIC MAKEUP
2. PAST LEARNING
3. PERCEPTIONS ABOUT SAFETY OR DANGER OF THE SITUATION
PRIMITIVE ASSOCIATIONAL REACTION
DETERMINES THE PATH A PERSON WILL TAKE IN A NEGATIVE SITUATION.
1. AGGRESSIVE-RELATED TENDENCIES (RUDIMENTARY FEELINGS OF ANGER
2. ESCAPE-RELATED TENDENCIES (RUDIMENTARY FEAR)
DEHUMINIZATION
THE PROCESS OF PORTRAYING AN ENEMY AS SUBHUMAN AND LACKING INDIVIDUALITY
TV FACTS
98% OF HOMES IN THE U.S. HAVE TV'S.
2/3 OF HOMES HAVE 3 SETS OR MORE.
TV'S ARE USUALLY ON 7 HOURS A DAY.
TV'S ARE ACTUALLY WATCHED 4 HOURS A DAY
METHODS OF REDUCING AGGRESSION
PUNISHMENT IS USEFUL IF IT IS USED WISELY.
USE NONAGGRESSIVE MODELS TO SHOW HOW ONE SHOULD RESPOND IN SITUATIONS WHEN PROVOKED.
COGNITIVE FACTORS - BE SURE YOU KNOW THE PERSON'S TRUE INTENTIONS, THERE MAY NOT HAVE BEEN MALICE.
REACTIONS THAT ARE INCOMPATIBLE WITH AGRESSION WILL DECREASE IT. IF THE AGGRESSOR FEELS EMPATHY, HE IS LESS LIKELY TO AGGRESS.
ALCOHOL
INCREASES AGGRESSION BY REDUCING OUR SOCIAL INHIBITIONS (DISINHIBITOR). ALCOHOL DISRUPTS THE WAY WE PROCESS INFORMATION AND MAKES US LESS CAUTOUS. MISUNDERSTAND PEOPLE AND SITUATIONS AROUND US.
SEROTONIN
ACTS AS A CHEMICAL MESSENGER. AID FOR SLEEPLESSNESS. LOW LEVELS OF SEROTONIN HAVE BEEN FOUND IN VIOLENCE PRONE CHILDREN AND ADULTS.
FRUSTRATION INCREASES WHEN ...
1) WHEN A GOAL IS NEAR AND YOUR PROGRESS IN INTERUPTED.
2) WHEN THERE IS A DEPRIVATION RELATIVE TO OTHER PEOPLE
3) WHEN PEOPLE HAVE A HOPE OF A CHANGE IN A RATHER HOPELESS SITUATION.
DOES MEDIA VIOLENCE CAUSE AGRRESSION - YES POINT 1
AN OVERWHELMING AMOUNT OF EVIDENCE SUGGESTS THAT EXPOSURE TO MEDIA VIOLENCE CAN LEAD TO AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR
DOES MEDIA VIOLENCE CAUSE AGRRESSION - YES POINT 2
NOT ONLY DOES THE MEDIA HAVE IN IMPACT ON AGGRESSION, BUT THE MAGNITUDE OF THIS EFFECT IS SUBSTANTIAL
DOES MEDIA VIOLENCE CAUSE AGGRESSION - YES POINT 3
MEDIA COMPANIES IRRESPONSIBLY DOWNPLAY THE IMPACT OF THE MEDIA ON AGGRESSION AND VIOLENCE
DOES MEDIA VIOLENCE CAUSE AGGRESSION - NO COUNTERPOINT 1
THE EVIDENCE PRESUMABLY DEMONSTRATING THE HARMFUL EFFECT OF MEDIA VIOLENCE IS NOT VERY STRONG
DOES MEDIA VIOLENCE CAUSE AGGRESSION - NO COUNTERPOINT 2
EVEN IF WE COULD TRUST THE EVIDENCE THAT SUPPOSEDLY DEMONSTRATED THE EFFECT OF MEDIA VIOLENCE ON AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR, THE MAGNITUDE OF THIS EFFECT WOULD STILL BE SMALL
DOES MEDIA VIOLENCE CAUSE AGGRESSION - NO COUNTERPOINT 3
PSYCHOLOGIST IRRESPONSIBLE INFLATE THE DEGREE TO WHICH THE MEDIA MY INFLUENCE VIOLENCE AND AGGRESSION WITHOUT PROPERLY REVIEWING THE EVIDENCE.
APPLYING SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
ARE SELF-ESTEEM PROGRAMS MISGUIDED?
YES - SELF-ESTEEM GENERALLY HAS LITTLE OR NO INFLUENCE ON MOST IMPORTANT OUTCOMES AND EXCESSIVELY HIGH SELF ESTEEM CAN SOMETIMES HAVE NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES, PROMOTING SELF-ESTEEM TO CHILDREN AND TEEN JUST FOR BEING THEMSELVES, OFFERS SOCIETY LITTLE COMPENSATORY BENEFITS
1) LOW SELF ESTEEM IS NOT A MAJOR CAUSE OF SOCIAL OR PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS
2) INFLATED VIEW OF SELF CAN SOMETIMES LEAD TO NEGATIVE OUTCOMES LIKE AGGRESSION AND VIOLENCE
3) PROGRAMS FOR SELF ESTEEM ARE UNLIKELY TO HAVE A MAJOR BENEFICIAL IMPACT.
APPLYING SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
ARE SELF-ESTEEM PROGRAMS MISGUIDED.
NO - PROGRAMS DESIGNED TO RAISE SELF-ESTEEM APPEAR TO HAVE BENEFICIAL EFFECTS.1) SELF ESTEEM PLAYS AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN SOME IMPORTANT PSYCHOLOGICAL OUTCOMES
2) HIGH SELF ESTEEM HAS POSTIVE EFFECTS EVIDENCE SHOWS
3)WELL DESIGNED PROGRAMS CAN HAVE POSITIVE IMPACT
DOES MILGRAM'S OBEDIENCE EXPERIMENTS HELP EXPLAIN THE NATURE OF THE HOLOCAUST?
YES, IT CAPTURED THE MOST IMPORTANT PSYCHOLICAL ASPECTS OF THE HOLOCAUST, BY DEMONSTRATING PEOPLE CAN BE MADE TO HARM OTHERS WITH ALARMING EASE. 1) OBEDIENCE TO AUTHORITY IS ONE OF THE PRIMARY REASONS THAT THE HOLOCAUST OCCURED.
2) PEOPLE PARTICIPATED BECAUSE THEY WERE PART OF THE BUREAUCRACY OF THE GERMAN STATE,NOT BECAUSE OF HATRED FOR THE JEWS
3) THE GERMANS SHOULD NOT BE ABSOLVED FROM THEIR CRIMES.
DOES MILGRAM'S OBEDIENCE EXPERIMENTS HELP EXPLAIN THE NATURE OF THE HOLOCAUST?
NO. RESULTS ARE NOT CONVINCING.
1) THE PSYCHOLOGY OF NAZI LEADERS BETTER EXPLAINS THEIR BEHAVIOR
2) MANY NAZI EXPRESSED THEIR DESIRE TO HARM JEWS, NOT JUST HITLER
3) FOLLOWING ORDERS IS SIMPLY AND EXCUSE. MILGRIMS GUARDS WERE NOT FOLLOWING ORDERS IN THEIR CRUELTY
CAN STEREOTYPES LEAD TO ACCURATE PERCEPTIONS OF OTHERS?
YES - THEY ARE NOT ALWAYS INACCURATE AND DO NOT INVARIABLY LEAD TO BIASED JUDGEMENTS OF OTHERS.
1) STEREOTYPES HAVE BEEN STEREOTYPED.
2) SINCE THEY ARE NOT ALWAYS INACCURATE, THEY DO NOT NECESSARILY LEAD TO INACCURATE JUDGEMENT OF OTHERS.
IT IS IMPORTANT TO STUDY THE ACCURACY OF STEREOTYPES
CAN STEREOTYPES LEAD TO ACCURATE PERCEPTIONS OF OTHERS?
NO. IT IS APPROPRIATE TO VIEW STEREOTYPES IN A NEGATIVE LIGHT.
2) EVEN IF THE CONTENT OF A PARTICULAR STEREOTYPE MAY BE ACCURATE,IT MAY STILL RESULT IN INACCURATE PERCEPTIONS OF OTHERS
3) THE STUDY OF STEREOTYPE ACCURACY IS MISGUIDED.
EVEN IF THE CONTENT OF A STEREOTYPE IS ACCURATE, APPLYING THE STEREOTYPE TO JUDGE AN INDIVIDUAL WITHIN A GROUP IS STILL LIKELY TO YEILD INACCURATE PERCEPTIONS.