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66 Cards in this Set

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Group
two or more people who for longer than a few moments interact with and influence one another and perceive one another as “us”
Social facilitation
original meaning was the tendency of people to perform simple or well learned tasks better when others are present and current meaning is the strengthening of dominant responses in the presence of others
Evaluation apprehension
concern for how others are evaluating us
Social loafing
the tendency for people to exert less effort when they pool their efforts toward a common goal than when they are individually accountable
Free riders
people who benefit from the group but give little in return
Deindividuation
loss of self awareness and evaluation apprehension, occurs in group situation that foster responsiveness that foster responsiveness to group norms, good or bad
Pluralistic ignorance
a false impression of what most other people are thinking, feeling, or responding
Group polarization
group produced enhancement of members’ preexisting tendencies, a strengthening of the members’ average tendency, not a split within the group
Social comparison
evaluating one’s opinions and abilities by comparing oneself to others
Groupthink
the mode of thinking that person engage in when concurrence seeking becomes so dominant in a cohesive in group that it tends to override realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action
Leadership
the process by which certain group members motivate and guide the group
Prejudice
a negative prejudgment of a group and its individual members
Stereotype
a belief about the personal attributes of a group of people. This is sometimes overgeneralized, inaccurate, and resistant to new information.
Discrimination
unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group or its members
Racism
an individual’s prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior toward people of a give race or institutional practices that subordinate people of a given race
Sexism
an individual’s prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior toward people of a give sex, or institutional practices that subordinate people of a given sex
Stereotype threat
a disruptive concern, when facing a negative stereotype, that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype. Unlike self fulfilling prophecies that hammer one’s reputation into one’s self concept, these situations have immediate effects.
Social identity
the “we” aspect of our self concept. The part of our answer to “Who am I?” that comes from our group.
Ingroup
“us” a group of people who share a sense of belonging, a feeling of uncommon identity
Outgroup
“them” a group that people perceive as distinctly different from or apart from their ingroup
Ingroup bias
the tendency to favor one’s own group
Realistic group conflict theory
the theory that prejudice arises from competition between groups for scarce resources
Ethnocentrism
a belief in the superiority of one’s own ethnic and cultural group, and a corresponding disdain for all other groups
Outgroup homogeneity effect
perception of outgroup members as more similar to one another than are ingroup members. Thus “they are alike
Own race bias
the tendency for people to more accurately recognize faces of their own race
Illusory correlation
a false impression that two variables correlate
Fundamental attribution error
the tendency for observers to underestimate situational influences and overestimate dispositional influences upon others’ behavior
Group serving bias
explaining away outgroup members’ positive behaviors, also attributing negative behaviors to their dispositions (while excusing such behavior by one’s own group).
Just world phenomenon
the tendency of people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get
Subtyping
accommodating individuals who deviate form one’s stereotype by splitting off a subgroup stereotype, this protects stereotypes
Aggression
physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone
Hostile aggression
aggression driven by anger and performed as an end in itself
Instrumental aggression
aggression that is a means to some other end
Instinctive behavior
an innate, unlearned behavior pattern exhibited by all members of a species
Frustration
the blocking of goal directed behavior
Displacement
the redirection of aggression to a target other than the source of the frustration. Generally, the new target is a safer or more socially acceptable target
Relative deprivation
the perception that one is less well off than others to whom one compares oneself
Social learning theory
the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded and punished
Crowding
a subjective feeling of not having enough space per person
Catharsis
emotion release. View of aggression is that drive is reduced when one “releases” aggressive energy, either by acting aggressively or by fantasizing aggression.
Prosocial behavior
positive, constructive, helpful social behavior
Factors influencing the accuracy of eyewitness include this
disparity in age and race between the observer and the person observed
It was found that the this is what really influenced the juror’s thought in the courtroom
witness’s confidence level
New false information can supplement a recollection
Misinformation effect by Elizabeth Loftus
3 stages that describe conclusions
Acquisition, Retention and change, Retrieval
sequential order vs. random order
Misleading information had a large effect when in random order & Misleading information had a smaller effect when in sequential order
2 principles for understanding changes in recollection
1. Recollections can change only if the subject does not immediately detect discrepancies between post event information and memory for the original event. 2. Change in recollections for an original natural event occurs only if a post event experience restores memory for the original even to an active status
Eye witness presentation’s hypothesis
those who receive the questionnaire about the movie first will be more accurate in recalling facts from the movie than those who receive a non related questionnaire first. The below average memory people actually answered more than the people that said they had “average” memory. This was probably due to the social handicapping.
Reducing Error in eyewitness testimony
Gary Wells created a method to train Train police to let the witness tell you what happened without interruptions and then ask more specific questions, do not ask questions to create false memory, Minimize false line up identifications, Educating the Jurors
Prison Study
Zimbardo wanted to see what the psychological effects were of becoming a prisoner or prison guard. A degradation procedure was designed in part to humiliate prisoners and in part to be sure they weren't bringing in any germs to contaminate our jail. The use of ID numbers was a way to make prisoner feel anonymous designed in part to minimize each person's individuality. It is also a way of getting people to begin complying with the arbitrary, coercive rules of the institution. Surprised and totally unprepared for the rebellion which broke out on the morning of the second day. The guards met and decided to treat force with force. The rebellion had been temporarily crushed, but now a new problem faced the guards. Psychological tactics amounted to setting up a privilege cell. Some of the prisoners who were the ringleaders now thought that the prisoners from the privileged cell must be informers, and suddenly, the prisoners became distrustful of each other. I was thinking like a prison superintendent rather than a research psychologist. I ended the study prematurely for two reasons. First, we had learned through videotapes that the guards were escalating their abuse of prisoners in the middle of the night when they thought no researchers were watching and the experiment was "off." Second, a recent Stanford Ph.D. questioned its morality. The question now is how to change our institutions so that they promote human values rather than destroy them.
Observer vs. actor affected by what?
attribution processes causes them to have an impression management system to follow.
Niccolo Machiavelli
he came up with the notion of how to maintain political control
Who looked at the writings of Niccolo’s writing and to see tendencies of people that’s consistent with what he predicts, what’s it called, and what does it test?
F. Geis and R. Christie came up with Machiavellinism and a test for it. It measures opportunisms and how to act at the right moment. This is the ability to identify weaknesses of others and exploit others weaknesses for your own gain. Ten dollar study by Geis and Christie Dealt with real money and identified people that scored high, medium, and low on the Mach scale. High Machs get into a coalition every time and got more money.
Where would you expect to see such Machiavellian behavior?
Work situation, lobbying in politics
His experiment had subjects identified as high Mach or low Mach, a confederate was there and the experimenter had to estimate the number of dots on a slide, it’s difficult to estimate the number of dots, a department secretary knocks on the door and tells the experimenter that he has an urgent phone call so he leaves, the confederate reads the answers to the others, whether or not you wrote them down or not correlates with the Mach level, when the experiment ends the experimenter says that the people did a good job and asks what the strategy was, the confederate then looks at the person for an answer, the experimenter then tells the people that he thinks that they looked at the cards. Who made this, what’s the dependent variable and independent variable?
R. Exline & Dependent variable in terms of the behavior of the subjects=eye contact. If the subjects were low Mach the eye contact fell down quickly after being accused. If they were high, then eye contact is higher. Independent variable=Mach score
Hypothesis: High Machs are better liars and more believable
Florence Geis and Moon & Judges found that the higher Mach you were the less you could tell it was a lie.
Mach in children
Braginsky & Dependent variable: How many nasty crackers the children ate. Results: Gender didn’t matter, but Mach type did. Another experiment dealt with children's parents Hypothesis: High Mach children have high Mach parents Results: Fathers had no results. However mothers showed an inverse relationship. As children’s Mach level went up the parents went down, because kids learn they can manipulate low Mach moms.
Violence and sex impaired memory of males and females because?
it draws attention away from ads and prevent the viewer from encoding them into long term memory.
Gender in Ads Presentation
Results and Hypothesis for females=the ads would be successful because the effect on the viewer, not the actual content and relevance of the ads. The females would describe the females in the ads with derogatory terms. Hypothesis for men=same as women for ads success, party atmosphere will cause viewer to want to party and buy. Overall conclusion: Women sustained a more objective view. They seemed to take each ad for what it was, not who was in it. However, the men did describe the males in the ads with derogatory terms. They lost track of the goal of the ad and instead focused on who was in it. In evolutionary terms, men seek to encounter more possible people to mate with. Whereas, women must be more careful to whom she allows to become pregnant. Women are much more selective trying to find protection and resources. Men try to find fertility.
Some say we watch violent show as a..
Catharsis releases of violent tension.
Bandura
The Bubo doll study, when kids watched adults beat up a doll they later mimicked the behavior. People process what they see and learn to relate to others.
He says that people will watch TV and think of it as a window of the world, people tend to take the TV attitude increasingly than what the world is really like
Gerbner and the Cultivation hypothesis
Relationship between TV and aggression. Aggression from a developmental standpoint following the same kids over decades (longitudinal study). He found that the kids that watched more TV were the meanest. When those kids were 19 they studied them again. They found the kids that watched a lot of TV were more likely to be in trouble. They also studied them at age 30. the correlation sustained.
Research conducted by Leonard Eron & A problem with the study is that there’s no way to compare the people that watched TV and those that did not.
There’s a community called ?? that had not TV for awhile. They studied the community before TV and then two years later afterwards.
Notel & They found that there was a significant increase in violence and decrease in creativity.
violence that leads up to a happy ending and everybody is all right in the end
Happy violence
If you watch a lot of TV then you are acting more violent that another that doesn’t watch much TV.
Mean world syndrome