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40 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
natural selection
the evolutionary process by which nature selects traits that best enable organisms to survive and reproduce in particular environmental niches
evolutionary psychology
the study of the evolution of behavior using principles of natural selection
culture
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
norms
rules for accepted and expected behavior. Norms prescribe "proper" behavior. (In a different sense of the word, norms also describe what most others do - what is normal.)
personal space
the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies. Its size depends on our familiarity with whoever is near us.
gender
in psychology, the characteristics, whether biological or socially influenced, by which people define male and female
aggression
physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone. In laboratory experiments, this might mean delivering electric shocks or saying something likely to hurt another's feelings
gender role
a set of behavior expectations (norms) for males and females
interaction
the effect of one factor (such as biology) depends on another factor (such as environment)
conformity
a change in behavior or belief as a result of real or imagined group pressure
compliance
conformity that involves publicly acting in accord with social pressure while privately disagreeing. Obedience is acting in accord with a direct order.
acceptance
conformity that involves both acting and believing in accord with social pressure
autokinetic phenomenon
self (auto) motion (kinetic). The apparent movement of a stationary point of light in the dark
confederate
an accomplice of the experimenter
normative influence
conformity based on a person's desire to fulfill others' expectations, often to gain acceptance
informational influence
conformity occurring when people accept evidence about reality provided by other people
reactance
a motive to protect or restore one's sense of freedom. Reactance arises when someone threatens our freedom of action
persuasion
the process by which a message induces change in beliefs, attitudes, or behaviors
central route to persuasion
occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts
peripheral route to persuasion
occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness
credibility
believability; a credible communicator is perceived as both expert and trustworthy
sleeper effect
a delayed impact of a message occurs when an initially discounted message becomes effective, as we remember the message but forgot the reason for discounting it
attractiveness
having qualities that appeal to an audience. An appealing communicator (often someone similar to the audience) is most persuasive on matters of subjective preference
primary effect
other things being equal, information presented first usually has the most influence
recency effect
information presented last sometimes has the most influence. Recency effects are less common than primacy effects
channel of communication
the way the message is delivered - whether face to face, in writing, on film, or some other way
two-step flow of communication
the process by which media influence often occurs through opinion leaders, who in turn influence others
cult
a group typically characterized by (1) distinctive ritual and beliefs related to its devotion to a god or a person, (2) isolation from the surrounding "evil" culture, and (3) a charismatic leader. (A sect, by contrast, is a spin-off from a major religion)
attitude inoculation
exposing people to weak attacks upon their attitudes so that when stronger attacks come, they will have refutations available
group
two or more people who, for longer than a few moments, interact with and influence one another and perceive one another as "us"
co-actors
co-participants working individually on a noncompetitive activity
social facilitation
(1) original meaning - the tendency of people to perform simple or well-learned tasks better when others are present. (2) Current meaning - the strengthening of dominant (prevalent, likely) responses in the presence of others
evaluation apprehension
concern for how others are evaluating us
social loafing
the tendency for people to exert less effort when they pool their efforts toward a common goal than when they are individually accountable
free riders
people who benefit from the group but give little in return
deindividuation
loss of self-awareness and evaluation apprehension; occurs in group situations that foster responsiveness to group norms, good or bad.
group polarization
group-produced enhancement of members' preexisting tendencies; a strengthening of the members' average tendency, not a split within the group
social comparison
evaluating one's opinions and abilities by comparing oneself to others
groupthink
"the mode of thinking that persons engage in when concurrence-seeking becomes so dominant in a cohesive in-group that it tends to override realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action"
leadership
the process by which certain group members motivate and guide the group