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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a negative prejudgement of a group and its individual members
a belief about the personal attributes of a group of people; sometimes overgeneralized, inaccurate, and resistant to new information
unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group or its members
(1) an individual's prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior toward people of a given race, or (2) institutional practices (even if not motivated by prejudice) that subordinate people of a given race
(1) an individual's prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior toward people of a given sex, or (2) institutional practices (even if not motivated by prejudice) that subordinate people of a given sex
stereotype threat
a disruptive concern, when facing a negative stereotype, that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype. Unnlike self-fulfilling prophecies that hammer one's reputation into one's self-concept, stereotype threat situations have immediate effects
social identity
the "we" aspect of our self-concept. The part of our answer to "Who am I?" that comes from our group
"us" - a group of people who share a sense of belonging, a feeling of common identity
"them" - a group that people perceive as distinctively different from or apart from their ingroup
ingroup bias
the tendency to favor one's own group
realistic group conflict theory
the theory that prejudice arises from competition between groups for scarce resources
a belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic and cultural group, and a corresponding disdain for all other groups
outgroup homogeneity effect
perception of outgroup members as more similar to one another than are ingroup members. Thus "they are alike; we are diverse."
own-race bias
the tendency for people to more accurately recognize faces of their own race
illusory correlation
a false impression that two variables correlate
fundamental attribution error
the tendency for observers to underestimate situational influences and overestimate dispositional influences upon others' behavior
group-serving bias
explaining away outgroup members' positive behaviors; also attribting negative behaviors to their dispostitions (while excusing such behavior by one's own group)
just-world phenomenom
the tendency of people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get
accommodating individuals who deviate from one's stereotype by splitting off a subgroup stereotype (such as "middle class Blacks" or "feminist women"; protects stereotypes
physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone
hostile aggression
aggression driven by anger and performed as an end in itself (also called affective aggression)
instrumental aggression
aggression that is a means to some other end
instinctive behavior
an innate, unlearned behavior pattern exhibited by all members of a species
the blocking of goal-directed behavior
the redirection of aggression to a target other than the source of the frustration. Generally, the new target is a safer or more socially acceptable target
relative deprivation
the perception that one is less well off than others to whom one compares oneself
social learning theory
the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded and punished
a subjective feeling of not having enough space per person
emotional release. The catharsis view of aggression is that aggressive drive is reduced when one "releases" aggressive energy, either by acting aggressively or by fantasizing aggression
prosocial behavior
positive, constructive, helpful social behavior; the opposite of antisocial behavior
need to belong
a motivation to bond with others in relationships that provide ongoing, positive interactions
geographical nearness; (functional distance) powerfully predicts liking
mere-exposure effect
the tendency for novel stimuli to be liked more or rated more positively after the rater has been repeatedly exposed to them
matching phenomenom
the tendency for men and women to choose as partners those who are a "good match" in attractiveness and other traits
physical-attractiveness stereotype
the presumption that physically attractive people possess other socially desirable traits as well: What is beautiful is good.
the popularity supposed tendency, in a relationship between two people, for each to complete what is missing in the other
the use of strategies, such as flattery, by which people seek to gain another's favor
reward theory of attraction
the theory that we like those whose behavior is rewarding to us or whom we associate with rewarding events
passionate love
a state of instense longing for union with another; absorbed in one another, feel ecstatic at attaingin their partner's love, and are disconsolated on losing it
two-factor theory of emotion
arousal x label = emotion
companion love
the affection we feel for those with whom our lives are deeply intertwined
a condition in which the outcomes people receive from a relationship are proportional to what they contribute to it; needn't always be equal outcomes
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
disclosure reciprocity
the tendency for one person's intimacy of self-disclosure to match that of a conversational partner