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74 Cards in this Set

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blaming the victim
our tendency to blame individuals (make dispositional attributions) for their victimization, typically motivated by a desire to see the world as a fair place
comparison level
people's expectations about the level of rewards and punishments they are likely to receive in a particular relationship

urban-overload hypothesis
the theory suggesting that people living in cities are constantly being bombarded with stimulation and that they keep to themselves in order to avoid being overloaded by it
avoidant attachment style
an attachment style characterized by a suppression of attachment needs, because attempts to be intimate have been rebuffed; people with this style find it difficult to develop intimate relationships
out-group
group with which the individual does not identify
altruism
any act that benefits another person but does not benefit the helper and often involves some personal cost to the helper

relational dialectics
a theory which states that close relationships are always in a state of change, due to opposing forces of autonomy/connection, novelty/predictability, and openness/closedness
bystander effect
the finding that the greater the number of bystanders who witness an emergency, the less likely it is that any one of them will help
propinquity effect
the finding that the more we see and interact with people, the more likely they are to become our friends
communal relationships
relationships in which people's primary concern is being responsive to the other person's needs
pluralistic ignorance
the phenomenon whereby bystanders assume that nothing is wrong in an emergency, because no one else looks concerned
Name the primary factors leading to personal atraction?
Propinquity
Mere exposure
Similarity
physical attraction
subtyping model
information inconsistent with a stereotype that leads to the creation of a new substereotype to accommodate the information without changing the initial stereotype
Thanatos
according to Freud, an instinctual drive toward death, leading to aggressive actions

stereotype vulnerability
the apprehension experienced by members of a minority group that they might behave in a manner that confirms an existing cultural stereotype

aggression
intentional behaviour aimed at causing either physical or psychological pain
comparison level for alternatives
people's expectations about the level of rewards and punishments they would receive in an alternative relationship
companionate love
the feelings of intimacy and affection we feel for another person when we care deeply for the person but do not necessarily experience passion or arousal in his or her presence
bookkeeping model
information inconsistent with a stereotype that leads to a modification of the stereotype
norm of reciprocity
the expectation that helping others will increase the likelihood that they will help us in the future
ultimate attribution error
our tendency to make dispositional attributions about an entire group of people





diffusion of responsibility
each bystander's sense of responsibility to help decreases as the number of witnesses increases
passionate love
the feelings of intense longing, accompanied by physiological arousal, we feel for another person; when our love is reciprocated, we feel great fulfillment and ecstacy, but when it is not, we feel sadness and despair
jigsaw classroom
a classroom setting designed to reduce prejudice and raise the self-esteem of children by placing them in small, desegregated groups and making each child dependent on the other children in his or her group to learn the course material and do well in the class

instrumental aggression
aggression as a means to some goal other than causing pain

conversion model
information inconsistent with a stereotype that leads to a radical change in the stereotype
Frustration-Aggression
All frustration leads to aggrression
All agression stems from frustration
What is "love as business"
Pragmatic
What is the "hard to get effect"?
All male subjects beleived to be involved in a university dating service. They go to a room and pick out five pictures of five ladies who were rated on a "hard to get scale". The guys like the girl who was selectively hard to get. REciporical liking.
discrimination
unjustified negative or harmful action toward a member of a group, simply because of his or her membership in that group
meta-stereotype
a person's beliefs regarding the stereotype that out-group members hold about their own group
kin selection
the idea that behaviours that help a genetic relative are favoured by natural selection
social exchange theory
the theory holding that how people feel about a relationship depends on their perceptions of the rewards and costs of the relationship, the kind of relationship they deserve, and their chances for having a better relationship with someone else
exchange relationships
relationships governed by the need for equity (i.e., for an equal ratio of rewards and costs)

prosocial behaviour
any act performed with the goal of benefiting another person
mutual interdependence
a situation where two or more groups need each other and must depend on each other in order to accomplish a goal that is important to each group
catharsis
the notion that "blowing off steam"-by performing an aggressive act, watching others engage in aggressive behaviours, or engaging in a fantasy of aggression-relieves built-up aggressive energies and hence reduces the likelihood of further aggressive behaviour

sociobiology
the application of evolutionary theory to social behaviour

empathy
the ability to put oneself in the shoes of another person-to experience events and emotions (e.g., joy and sadness) the way another person experiences them
amygdala
an area in the core of the brain that is associated with aggressive behaviours
social learning theory
the theory that we learn social behaviour (e.g., aggression) by observing others and imitating them
aggressive stimulus
an object that is associated with aggressive responses (e.g., a gun) and whose mere presence can increase the probability of aggression
equity theory
the theory holding that people are happiest with relationships in which the rewards and costs a person experiences and the contributions he or she makes to the relationship are roughly equal to the rewards, costs, and contributions of the other person
mere exposure
the finding that the more exposure we have to a stimulus, the more apt we are to like it
realistic conflict theory
the theory that limited resources lead to conflict between groups and result in increased prejudice and discrimination

dehumanization
the act of seeing victims as nonhumans (e.g., "gooks" instead of fellow human beings); dehumanization lowers inhibitions against aggressive actions and makes continued aggression easier and more likely
negative-state relief hypothesis
the idea that people help in order to alleviate their own sadness and distress

secure attachment style
an attachment style characterized by trust, a lack of concern with being abandoned, and the view that one is worthy and well liked

prejudice
a hostile or negative attitude toward a distinguishable group of people, based solely on their membership in that group
out-group homogeneity
the perception that those in the out-group are more similar (homogeneous) to each other than they really are, as well as more similar than the members of the in-group
empathy-altruism hypothesis
the idea that when we feel empathy for a person, we will attempt to help him or her purely for altruistic reasons, regardless of what we have to gain
normative conformity
the tendency to go along with the group in order to fulfill their expectations and gain acceptance
love styles
the basic theories people have about love that guide their behaviour in relationships; six styles have been identified: Eros, ludus, storge, pragma, mania, and agape

scapegoating
the tendency for individuals, when frustrated or unhappy, to displace aggression onto groups that are disliked, visible, and relatively powerless
relative deprivation
the perception that you (or your group) have less than you deserve, less than you have been led to expect, or less than people similar to you have
attachment styles
the expectations people develop about relationships with others, based on the relationship they had with their primary caregiver when they were infants
Eros
the instinct toward life, posited by Freud

gain-loss effect
the finding that we like people the most if we feel we have gained in their estimation of us (i.e., if they initially disliked us but now like us) and that we dislike people the most if we feel we have lost their favour (i.e., if they initially liked us but now dislike us)

stereotype threat
the apprehension experienced by members of a minority group that they might behave in a manner that confirms an existing cultural stereotype
altruistic personality
the aspects of a person's makeup that are said to make him or her likely to help others in a wide variety of situations
in-group
the group with which an individual identifies and of which he or she feels a member
11
Not if he will not find out the outcome. Yes it woulds
stereotype
a generalization about a group of people in which identical characteristics are assigned to virtually all members of the group, regardless of actual variation among the members

triangular theory of love
the idea that different kinds of love consist of varying degrees of three components: intimacy, passion, and commitment
self-fulfilling prophecy
the case whereby people (a) have an expectation about what another person is like, which (b) influences how they act toward that person, which (c) causes that person to behave in a way consistent with people's original expectations
Freud and Lorenz
Freud
EROS
THANTOS

Lorenz
believes fighting instinct likened to mating, have to be strongest to mate and reproduce.
empathy
the ability to put oneself in the shoes of another person, to experience events and emotions (e.g., joy and sadness) the way that person experiences them

investment model
the theory holding that people's commitment to a relationship depends on their satisfaction with the relationship in terms of rewards, costs, and comparison level; their comparison level for alternatives; and how much they have invested in the relationship that would be lost by leaving it
Attachment styles
The way people relate to each other, based on their relationship with primary caregiver.
Secure
Avoidant
Anious/ Ambivilent
hydraulic theory
the theory that unexpressed emotions build up pressure and must be expressed to relieve that pressure
frustration-aggression theory
the theory that frustration-the perception that you are being prevented from obtaining a goal-will increase the probability of an aggressive response

Three components of trangular love theory
Committment
INtimacy
Passsion
sociobiological approach to love
an approach derived from evolutionary biology, which states that men and women are attracted to different characteristics in each other (men are attracted by women's appearance; women are attracted by men's resources) because this maximizes their reproductive success
hostile aggression
an act of aggression stemming from feelings of anger and aimed at inflicting pain