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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Definition of Psychology
the science and study of human mental processes and behavior
Who is the object of observation in psychology?
The person, NOT a group of people
Social psychology is...
THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF SUBJECTIVE HUMAN EXPERIENCES
the science of what it is like to be a human, attempting to provide a scientific answer to the problem of other minds
For social psychologists, the critical object of psychological inquiry is...
the other person's experience
Social Psychology is Scientific, meaning it is...
Empirical, rational (based on data)
Design questions, collect data to answer them
What is the Problem of other minds?
We only experience our own minds
People's mental processes are subjective
What are other people's mental experiences like?
Experience
thoughts, feelings and actions
-done by an individual
-some can be measured by observation
-some can be measured by self report only
emergent property
something that is real but unmeasurable (think the number 100 made by people); our perception; experience is more than just brain experience and bodily control
Example of subjective human experience
EMOTION
- one answer may be that is is a neurological and physiological activity producing emotional behaviors
- the social psychological answer: it is all this, plus the SUBJECTIVE FEELING the person experiences during that emotion
It is difficult to get ____ data from a ____ source
objective ; subjective
Correspondence Bias
when we think of our own behavior, we think about our situational bias, when we think of others behavior, we attribute it to something constant, like their personality
The Wall Street Game
Example of Correspondence bias; people who think that others are more competitive often say its part of their personality, however, the Wall Street Game suggests the Power of the Situation
The Two Basic Needs that Motivate Individuals
-Need to be accurate
*we want to accurately understand our world
*we construe environmental feedback in ways that are congruent with our expectataions
-Need to feel good (self-esteem
* we want to feel good about ourselves
*we construe environmental feedback in self-serving ways
Methods of Social Psychology
- The Scientific Method
1. Define Question
2. Gather information
3. Form hypothesis
4. Perform experiment and collect data
5. Analyze data
6. Interpret data and draw conclusions that serve as a starting oint for new hypotheses
7. Publish results
What is a hypothesis?
an idea about a relationship between two or more variables
- must be testable/ falsifiable
Three ways to test a hypothesis
-Observational methods
-Correlational methods
-Experimental methods
Observational Methods
Describe the world as it is
- Case Studies- ex. Freud and lil albert
-archival data- eg. newspapers, old polls
- participant observation (ethnography)- eg. Anthropologists
Uses of Observational methods
-Provide a rich understanding of behavior in the world
-inspire further research questions
Drawbacks of Observational Methods
-cannot make causal statements
-researcher does not manipulate variables
-some behaviors are difficult to observe
- not very well targeted
Correlational Methods
If one variable changes, does another change with it?
- surveys
-questionnaires
-random sampling
Uses of Correlational Methods
-explore relationships between variables
-more controlled than observation
Disadvantages of Correlational Methods
-cannot determine causation
Correlation
a numerical expression of the relationship between two variables
-they fall between +1 and -1 with 0 meaning no relationship
Experimental Method
-answers questions about causation
-controlled environment
-random sampling
-random assignment to conditions
Uses of Experimental Method
-explore causal relationships between variables
-can be confident that effects are due to manipulated variables and not other factors
Disadvantages of Experimental methods
-controlled experimental settings are often unrealistic
-effects may not be gereralizable to real life
-problem with operationalization
Independent Variable
the variable that is being manipulated by the experimenter
Dependent Variable
the variable whose change we are interested in; it will only change if the IV changes
Random Assignment to Conditions
a way of making sure that the groups of people each experimental condition are similar
-same avg age, #of men v,. women
-ensures that the differences in DV are due to changes in IV
Internal Validity
-people in all conditions are treated identically
-all changes in the DV are due to the IV
External Validity
the extent to which the study's results apply to people and situations outside the lab
-accomplished by replicating the study with different populations of participants and by making the study more realistically
Random Sampling
a way of getting a small sample that is representative of the larger population
- each person in the population has an equal chance of being selected to be in the study
- a study can be generalized to the entire population if random sampling is used