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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Internal Validity
Extent to which an experiment allows confident statements about cause and effect.
External Validity
Extent to which the result of an experiment can be generalized to other circumstances.
Sociocultural Perspective
Thereotical viewpoint that searches for the causes of social behavior in influences from larger social groups. Driven by forces in larger social groups. Norms, social class, nationality, fads; norms (rule/expectation for behavior) and culture
Evolution Perspective
Searches for the causes of social behavior in the physical and psychological predispositions that helped our ancestors survive and reproduce. Driven by genetic predispositions inherited from our ancestors that promoted their survival and reproduction like, to recognize an angry face and for mother to feel protective of children.
Participants disclose their thoughts, feelings, desires, and actions. Problems: not always accurate and misleading, affected by the way in which questions are asked, can be inaccurate because memories for past thoughts, behaviors maybe suspect.
Observational Measures
Importance of interrater reliability. Can be done by humans or machines. Avoids faulty recollections adn distorted interpretations of each behaviors.
Descriptive Research
Goal is to describe people and their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors.. observational studies, archival studies, surveys
Correltional Research
Goal is to learn about relationship between variables. Can study the association of naturally occurring variables that cannot be manipulated or induced, examine phenomena difficult or unethical to create for research purposes, freedom in settings in which the variables are measured, correlation does not equal causation.
Experimental Research
Cause and effect relationships: 1. researchers have control over the experimental preocedures 2. participants are ranomly assigned to different treatment conditions
In settings: the environment cna be controlled and the participants can be carefully studied
Field Experiments
Real world settings + people are more likely to act natural - experimenter has less control
Random Assignment
Practice of assigning subjects to treatment so each subject has an equal chance of being in any condition.
Internal Validity
Extent to which an experiment allows confident statements about cuase and effects.
External Validity
Extent to which the results of an experiment can be generalized to other circumstances.
Researchers have a moral and legal responsibility to abide by ethical principles, use of deception, role of Institutional Review Boards. 1. Obtaining informed consent 2. Fully debriefing subjects after the research is completed 3. Evaluating the costs and benefits of the research procedures
Specific attitude we have toward ourselves.
Sum total of beliefs that people have about themselves, from self-schemas.
Facial Feedback Hypothesis
Sensory feedback from the facial muscles will lead to subjective feelings of emotion that correspond to the particular facial pattern.
One's culture values the virtues of independence , autonomy, and self-reliance (personal achievement)
One's culture values the virtues of interdependence, cooperation, and social harmony (people derive more satisfaction from the status of the valued group)
Process by which we seek to control or alter our toughts, feelings, behaviors, and urges.
Ironic Processes
Wegner: The harder we try to inhibit a thought, feeling, or behavior the less likely we are to succeed.
People tend to take credit for success and distance themselves from failure.
Behaviors designed to sabotage ones' own performance in order to provide subsequent excuse for failure.
Basking on the Glory of Others
To raise our self-esteem we often bask in reflected glory "BIRG" by associating with others who are successful. To protect our self-esteem, we will "cut off reflected failure" (CORF) by distancing ourselves from others who fail or are of low status.
Tendency to regulate one's own behavior to meet the demands of the situation. High self monitors - sensitive no strategic self-presentation concerns & Low self monitors - more concerned with self verification
"inner" self awareness with paranoia
"outer"self awareness
1st impressions are often subtly influenced by a person's appearance, we judge people based on facial features by traits from faces and judge "baby-faced" adults differently
Nonverbal Behavior
Behavioral cues used to identify a person' inner states, as well as his/her emotions. Like facial expressions of emotions, body language, eye contact or gaze, physical touch, cultural differences.
Cognitive are information-processing rules of thumb. Problem is that using cognitive heuristics can frequently lead to error. Availability is the tendency to estimate the likelihood that an event will occur by how easily instances of it come to mind.
Social Psychology
How people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by other people. It is goal oriented, the behavior.
Fundamental Motives
Surface level are day to day goals like studying to the broadest = fundamental motives 1. to establish social ties 2. to understand ourselves and others 3. to gain and maintain status 4. to defend ourselves and those we value attract and retain mates
Scientific Method
Systematic observation/description, measurement, explanation/prediction
Basic REsearch
Goal is to increase our understanding of human behavior.
Applied REsearch
Goal is to enlarge our understanding of naturally occurring events.
Conceptual Variables
Abstract or general variables.
Operational Definitions
Specific how the conceptual varialbe will be manipulated or measured.
Construct Validity
Used to evaluate the manipulation and measurement of variables. Extent to which: the manipulations in an experiment really manipulater the conceptual variables they were designed to manipulate. Measures in study really measure conceptual variables.