Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

98 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
you can start to make a better attribution correspondence. The better we can make a decision the higher the correspondence inferences. The less able we are to make a decision, the lower the correspondence inferences.
As consequences increases…
favorable or unfavorable evaluative reaction toward something or someone, exhibited in one's beliefs, feelings, or intended behavior
Attribution process
from the observer’s side, way in which observer forms impressions about the performer
Attribution theory
the theory of how people explain others’ behavior
availability heuristic
judging the likelihood of things in terms of their availability
Behavioral confirmation
a type of self-fulfilling prophecy whereby people’s social expectations lead them to act in ways that cause others to confirm their expectations
Belief perseverance
persistence of one’s initial conceptions
cognitive dissonance
tension that arises when one is aware of two inconsistent cognitions
giving priority to the goals of one’s groups (often one’s extended family or work group) and defining one’s identity accordingly
confirmation bias
tendency to search for information that confirms one’s preconceptions
Correlational research
the study of the naturally occurring relationships among variables
counterfactual thinking
imaging alternative scenarios and outcomes that might have happened but did not
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
way to win over participants to his side, indicates to them that he really did the experiment for scientific reasons and not talk about the experiment, gives participants the point of the researcher
cover story to improve the results of the test. It takes all elements of an experiment and ties it together into a believable story.
Demand characteristics
cues in an experiment that tell the participant what behavior is expected
demand characteristics
experimenter gives subtle cues to participants as to how to respond
dependent variable
the variable being measured by researchers
A natural or acquired habit or characteristic tendency in a person or thing
Dual attitudes
differing implicit (automatic) and explicit (consciously controlled) attitudes toward the same object. Verbalized explicit attitudes may change with education and persuasion
Erving Goffman
revealed that it’s not about who you are it’s about how you present yourself, he describes how people will behave in certain ways so others can form specific impressions about them, he came up with a dramaturgical perspective (presentation of self), people’s perspective is like in a theatre setting, Actors=us, Audience=them
experimental method
method for exploring causal relationship between 2 or more variable
Experimental realism
degree to which an experiment absorbs and involves its participants
Experimental research
studies that examine cause-effect relationships by manipulating one or more factors (independent variables) while controlling others (holding them constant)
Experimental research
studies that seek clues to cause-effect relationships by manipulating one or more factors (independent variables) while controlling others (holding them constant)
external locus of control
believe rewards and punishments occur independent of what they do
false consensus
overestimate commonality of our opinions and undesirable behavior
false uniqueness
tendency to underestimate the commonality of one's opinions and one's undesirable or successful behaviors
Field research
research done in natural, real-life settings outside the laboratory
foot-in-the-door phenomenon
the tendency for people who have first agreed to small request to comply later with a larger request
Fundamental attribution error
tendency for observers to underestimate situational influences and overestimate dispositional influences upon others’ behaviors (Also called correspondence bias)
a rule-of-thumb strategy that enables quick, efficient judgements
hindsight bias (I knew it all along phenomenon)
tendency to exaggerate after learning an outcome, one's ability to have foreseen how something turned out.
a testable proposition that describes a relationship that may exist between events
Illusion of control
perception of uncontrollable events as subject to one’s control or as more controllable than they are
Illusory correlation
perception of a relationship where none exists
Impression management
from performer side, deals with how the person who is being observed controls the process
impression management
from performer side, deals with how the person who is being observed controls the process, technique or set of tactics employed by performer as a means to influence or subvert the perceptions which the observer forms.
independent variable
manipulated by researchers
the concept of giving priority to one’s own goals over group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications
Informed consent
an ethical principle requiring that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate
internal locus of control
take credit for success and failure
Just world Hypothesis
created by Melvin Lerner, The theory suggests that we all have a need to believe in a world where justice reigns. Good people are awarded, bad people are punished. When good people suffer we don’t feel good.
learned helplessness
the hopelessness and resignation learned when a human or animal perceives no control over repeated bad events
said that the crowd generates a kind of psyche that influences the individual, a kind of group mind
Levels of significance
data differences that is sufficient to show something is due or not due to chance alone, statistical tests determine how likely it is that the independent variable is involved only by chance.
locus of control
the extent to which people perceive outcomes as internally controllable by their own efforts and actions or as externally controlled by chance or outside forces
Manipulation checks
allows scientists to make sure the results are from what they really want to find out in an experiment
process of doing social psychology research
Misinformation effect
incorporating misinformation into one’s memory of the event, after witnessing an event and receiving misleading information about it.
Mundane realism
degree to which an experiment is superficially similar to everyday situations
Naturalist fallacy
the error of defining what is good in terms of what is observable
Non-Western view of self
operational definition
explains something within a specific case
overconfidence phenomenon
tendency to overestimate the accuracy of one’s belief
Performance style test
created by Ring, Braginsky, and Braginsky, measurement of how people try to alter their persona to fit different situations, P scale-person, C scale-chameleon, flexible and can change and blend in situations, does not have internal anchoring like P (take me or leave me), R scale-Roll player, high on skill, motivation, and knowledge of scripts, people that gives a good performance, they look at P’s and think they are naïve
images of what we dream of or dread becoming in the future
Power of the situation
people don’t realize how much the social situation can really affect you
activating particular association in memory
Psychosomatic theory
argues that people eat and respond to anxiety. If this is right then we would expect overweight people to eat more during higher anxiety
pump handle solution
like taking away guns by adding metal detectors, isn’t the root of the problem it is the social situation
Random assignment (Note that distinction between random assignment in experiments and random sampling helps us infer cause and effect. Random sampling helps us infer cause and effect. Random sampling helps us generalize to a population.)
the process of assigning participants to the conditions of an experiment such that all persons have the same chance of being in a given condition
Random sample
survey procedure in which every person in the population being studied has an equal chance of inclusion
Since we can't clone people and keep all variables stable, we encounter certain differences and problems. So, what can we do when choosing participants in an experiment?
reflections from others
how we view others is important for how we view ourselves
Regression toward the average
the statistical tendency for extreme scores or extreme behavior to return toward one’s average
representativeness heuristic
presuming despite contrary odds that someone or something belongs to a particular group if resembling a typical member
set of norms that define how people in a given social position ought to behave
Internal/External Schacteterian theory
developed by Stanly Schachter and suggests that oversize people pay attention to different kind of cues related to eating, external queues (seeing a restaurant, time of day) and internal queues (gastric contractions, blood sugar level), overweight people are not as capable to monitoring their internal queues. They are overly influenced by external queues
self handicapping
process whereby people produce excuses for their performance
Self Monitoring
created by Snyder, measurement of how people try to alter their persona to fit different situations, High self monitor people that pay close attention to what you do and others’ reactions and adjust to feedback, Low self monitor opposite of high self monitor
self perception theory
when we are unsure of our attitudes, we infer them much as would someone observing us, by looking at our behavior and the circumstances under which it occurs
self schemas
beliefs about self that organize and guide the processing of self-relevant information
a self-conscious state in which attention focuses on oneself. It makes people more sensitive to their own attitudes and dispositions
person’s answer to the question Who am I?
self-discrepancy theory
view of self includes how the self schemas relate to each other
a sense that one is competent and effective
person’s overall self-evaluation or sense of self-worth
self-fulfilling prophecy
people’s expectations lead them to act in ways that produce the apparent confirmation
being attuned to the way one presents oneself and adjusting behavior
the act of expressing oneself and behaving in ways designed to create a favorable impression or an impression that corresponds to one’s ideas
Self-reference effect
the tendency to process efficiently and remember well information related to oneself
self-serving bias
tendency to perceive oneself favorably
social comparisons
we assess our qualities by comparing ourselves to others
social facilitation
Triplett discovered this when he noticed how people seemed to do stuff better like wining fishing string around others
Social identity
the we aspect of our self-concepts. The part of the answer to Who am I? that comes from our group memberships.
it is empirical
Social psychology is distinct from folk wisdom because…
Social psychology
the scientific study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another
Social representation
socially shared beliefs widely held ideas and values
responses from others
sources of self-concept
statistical significance
This helps account for the variability to the responses, If p<.01=highly significant, If p<.10=marginally significant
Study by Jones and Aronson
participants are given something to read and draw conclusions, one case she is rapped and one case she is almost rapped, the independent variable is respectability, the found the greater the respectable, the greater the violation of the just world. As predicted, the married woman and virgin are more at fault of being assaulted then they did the divorcee.
Theory of Correspondence Inferences
created by Jones and Davis in order to put together a model of the Attribution Process. Deals with information that is observed and what one can infer with the information
an integrated set of principles that explain and predict observed events
ultimate self-serving bias
tend to see self as less self serving than others
Western Cultures view of self
when attitude is specific to behavior
When do attitudes predict behavior?
when motivated
When do we go beyond heuristic?