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28 Cards in this Set

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Define aggression and it's two types?
Behaviour, either physical or verbal intended at the harm of an individual.

Hostile aggression
Instrumental aggression
Three main idea involved in explaining aggression?
Biological Drive
Natural Response to frustration
learned behavior
What are the two opposing philosophies stating that human natures tendency for aggression?
Rousseau's Noble savage(born noble)
Hobbes: Born svage and society tames them
Freud and Lorenz saw aggression as what?
Instinctual in nature

Freud stated that people have drive towards death

Lorenz: adaptive survival feature
Buss and Shackerfeld's evolutionary theory of aggression?
Evolved through ancestors using it through the centuries
Anatomical Parts of brain involved in aggression and how?
Prefrontal Cortex: cognitive management system
Amygdala: center for fear and aggression
Two biochemicals associated with aggression?
Testosterone (high levels of which)
Low levels of Serotonin
Theory which states that the complete blocking of attaining one's goals will lead to aggression?
Frustration-aggression theory
In what way did Berkowitz modify the frustration theory?
Frustration will not always lead to aggression if:

-person apologizes
-takes responsibility for trouble
-tries to make amends
What type of aggression (of the two) does frustration-agression theory account for?
Hostile Aggression
The gap from what two factors create frustration?
An increased gap between one's expectations and attainment goals
Define Relative Deprivation.
perception that one is less well that others by comparison
Of the three ideas describing aggression, which one describes instrumental aggression?
Aggression as socially learned behavior to achieve certain rewards

Socially learned behavior theory
Which Scientist proposed social learning theory?
Bandura
What are three aversive incidents linked to increased aggression?
Pain
Heat
Being attacked
How does arousal effect aggression?
a given state of bodily arousal feeds one emotion or another, depending on how one interprets the arousal and labels it
Studies conducted to test for aggression and sexual assault on women are justified under what reason?
Humanitarian,
those participating and the world learn, understand and work to prevent such aggression
What is the average number of TV murders a high school student will have witnessed?
8000
Explain Catharsis?
The purging of violent needs through observing them (through television)

an emotional release
Name three ways in which television viewing of aggression influences aggression?
Increases arousal
Disinhibition
Imitation
What are four ways television effects our thinking?
Desensitization
Social Scripts
Priming (towards what was was watched)
Altered perception
What are the five effects of violent video games?
Increase arousal
Increased negative feelings
Increased negative thinking
Increased negative behavior
Decreased pro-social behavior
What are the four influences on aggression (major influences)
Aversive incidents
Arousal
mass media
group
What are aggression cues?
Cues that provoke aggressive tendencies (weapons)
Two psychologists who promoted Catharsis of aggression (Not Freud)
Landers and Fitz Perl
Does Catharsis work?
The further use of aggression seems to increase aggression
What does silently rumination on aggression do?
Increases aggressive tendencies
Three ways the social learning perspective suggests to reduce aggression?
Reduce aversive Stimuli
Rewarding and modelling non aggression
eliciting reactions that are incompatible to aggression