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49 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Why Do we help?
Evolutionary approaches - kinship selection (genes will survive into the next generation.
Sociocultural Approaches - social norms (norm of reciprocity, norm of equity, norm of social responsibility vs. norm of noninvolvement in urban environments)
Theories of why we help?
Empathy - Altruism Hypothesis and Negative State of Mind
Norm of Equity
Accessing the costs & benefits for the amount of help you expect to get
Norm of Social Responsibility
Basis principle of how we should treat people
Norm of Non involvement
In urban environments - counternorm - idea that it is not appropriate to help - densely populated areas
When do we help?
Situational Variables that promote helping behavior
Social Learning by obeservation - others model behavior and we imitate it
Social and Personal Norms
Internal feelings of moral obligation and moral responsibility
Rewards / Punishment (operant conditioning)
Helping others with direct punishment and rewards
We help when we are in a good mood - uniformly the mood is situational
Potent influence - do we have the time
Whom do we help?
Physicall Attractive Others
Similar Others
Deserving Others
Victim/Attacker are strangers
Why don't we help?
The Bystander Effect - presence of others inhibits hleping
The Decision Tree
1. Notice Incident (distraction)
2. Interpret the Event as an Emgergency (perception, motivation, pluralistic ignorance)
3. Take Responsibility for Helping (diffusion of responsibility)
4. Decision on an Appropriate from of assistance (lack of competence)
5. Take Action (audience inhibition, fear)
The Recipient of Help
Over-helping may make us feel incapable, dependent, or incompetent.
Threat - to - Self-Esteem Model
Help will be viewed positively if it makes us feel appreciated and cared for
Defining Aggression
Must include Intention - can be an intentional act or an intentional failure to act
Kinds of Aggression
Verbal or physical (can be prosecuted)
Direct or indirect (symbolic)
Emotional (anger/hostility)vs. Instrumental(using aggression to get what I want-goal oriented)
Theories of Aggression (internal)
Internal Factors:
Freud (psychoanalytic theory) Thanatos based on a death instict wihin us
Lorenz (Ethology) instict that is triggered by social cues
Darwin (evolutionary theory/natural selection) adapative behavior that increases survial
Theories of Aggression (external)
External factors:
Operant Conditioning: Learning via reinforcement and punishment
Observational or social Learnng: Learning via observation and imitation of models
Frustration-aggression Hypothesis: frustration leads to aggression or displaced aggression, which leads to a catharsis (a release of frustration)
Factors that may lead to aggression
Situational cues - Weapons Effect: when aggression cues are paired with frustration, aggression may occur
Factors that may lead to aggression
Noxious (unpleasant)Stimuli: environmental (crowding, temperature, noice,)prone to lash out. The situation pushes aggression to a point and pp give up
Factors that may lead to aggression
Use of Euphemistic Labels - justifying and allowing the increase of aggression and violence
Factors that may lead to aggression
Deindividuation - in a crowd we lose our self and become unaware as an invididual and become part of crowd - losing personal self
Factors that may lead to aggression
Dehumanization: we hide our own identity behind sunglasses or a costume (halloween) and I can be anybody (Simbardo Exp guards/prisoners)
Media Violence and Aggression
TV violence and aggression - observation and modeling of violence; desensitization also occurs, most studies are correlational (watching violent TV is associated with great violence) they go together
Pornography and aggression
Nonviolent pornography affects attitudes toward women (calous view) and rape victims (no aggression)
Pornography and aggression
Violent Pornography affects attitudes toward women and rape victims, increases belief in rape myths, increases male-to-female aggression in lab studies (males only). Affects our attitude towards stereotypes
Pornography and aggression
Non-pornographic media with sexual and violent imagery - rated R movies (horror movies)also has an affect for Men and Women
Social Influence
The way we are influenced by pressure real or imagined from others
3 Types of Social Influence
Conformity: behave to be consistent with group standards
Compliance: yield to a direct request from another
Obedience: follow a direct order or command from an authority figure
Classic Studies of Conformity
Sherif - different task of perception - the ambiguity of not knowing an answer people confirm
The Asch Paradigm: When given a clear answer no one confirms, but it failed as 75% of the group answered incorrectly
Why People Confirm?
Informational social Influence - the group knows better
Normative social influence - ability of the group to punish or reward
Factors Affecting Conformity
Individual difference factors (age, cultural) In private - Men will confirm; in public Women will confirm
Salience of norm: having an awareness of norms (church)
Group Size - levels at 4pp
Group Unanimity - it is difficult for a person to go against the group
Minority Influence (consistentcy is key)
Factors that Affect Compliance
Offer a reason for the request - mindlessness so we give into the request

Norm of Reciprocity - we help others who help us
Sequential Request Strategies
Foot-in-the-door technique:commit to a small request; then they hit you with a big one

Door-in-the-face technique:an enourmous request is made first but will comply to a smaller one

Lowballing:car dealerships, when you commit to a set price, they will gradually add items to the price.

That's not all Tecnique: throw extra things to get you to commit - informercials
A direct explicit command or order from an authority figure
Variables that Affect Obedience
Status of Authority: I was ordered to to it - 65% did not stop shocking
Variable that Affect Obedience
Closeness/proximity of authority figure: 10% were shocked were they had direct contact - the closer you get to authority obedience was obeyed
Variable that Affects Obedience
Closeness/proximity of victim - the closer to the victim the more pp disobeyed
Variable that Affects Obedience
Model of Disobedience (others who disobey)seeing another person say "no" was enought to disobey
Can the minority ever influence the majority?
A minority that is consistent but flexible and adheres to opinions that fit with the current spirit of the time has a good chance of changing majority opionion
Social Impact theory
When your opinion is different frm that of a unanimous majority, you are faced with a dilemma
Allies - True Parner Effect
When there is another person who supports our perceptions the tendency to conform reduces
Minority Influences
A consistent minority is usually perceiced as being more confident and less willing to compromise - as the size of the minority increases, so does perceived competence
Socal Influence
Operates in two Directions:
from Majority to minority and from Minority to Majority
Majority Influence
Operates through the application of pressure (privately they don't accept majority's view)
Minority Influence
Operates from a private level - making pp think more deeply about the minority's position - similar to infomrational influence
Social Impact Theory
Influence = S I N
Single underlying process
Strength of the source
Immediacy (closeness)
Number of influence sources

Influence increases rapidly b/t zero to 3 sources