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67 Cards in this Set

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altruism
unselfish regard for the welfare of others
bystander effect
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present

(ex. kitty genovese)
social exchange theory
teh theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs

-anticipate rewards from helping thta exceed the cost, you help
reciprocity norm
an expectation that people will help those dependent upong them

-ex. people who attend church volunteer twice as many hours and give to poor
superordinate goals
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation
GRIT
graduated reciprocated initiatives in tensio-reduction: a strategy designed to decrease international tensions

1. announce recognition of mutual interests
2. initiates small and conciliatory acts
social psychologists
connections by scientifically studyihng how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
attribution theory
fritz Heider: how we explain someone's bejavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition

-hostility reflects aggressive personality
fundamental attribution error
tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
attitudes
feelings based on beliefs that predispose our reactions to objects, people, and events
attitudes follow hevior
people come to believe in what they stand up for
the foot-in-the-dorr phenomenon
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request

-ex. zimbardo prisoner and guard experiment
cognitive dissonance
when we become aware that our attitudes and actions don't conincide, we experience tension
cognitive dissonance theory
Leon Festinger: the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconcisisten. when awareness of the attituedes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by chaging our attitides
categorization
separating people into groups often by stereotypes or biasing our perceptions of their diversity
the just-world phenomenon
the tendency for people to belive the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get
the chameleon effect
unconsciously mimicking others expressions, postures, voice tones helps us feel what they are feeling
moood linkage
sharing up and down moods between people work with
conformity
adjusting one's nehaior to conincide with a group standard
solomon Asch
line test- conformity increases when one feels incompetent or insecure

-culture encourages respect for social standard
narmative social influence
influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
informational social influence
influence resulting from one's willingness to accept othes' opinions about reality
robert baron's line-up test
when accuracy of judgements important, people rarely conform, but when task is easy, they conformed 1/2 the time. when unsure if we are right, more receptive to other's opinions
Stanley Milgram
willingness to comply with commands that inflict punshment

-obedience
-strong social influences can make people confrom to falsehoods or capitulate to cruelty
prejudice
prejudegemnt, an unjustifiable attitude toward a group and its members
-generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, predisposition to discriminatiory action
stereotype
a generalized belief about a group of people
discrimination
unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group or its memeber
implicit racial associations
anthony greenwald- 9/11 white respondents had difficulty associating the words good w/ black faces
unconscious patronizing
kent harber- white university women looked at papers and told that sold written by black students and some written by white- gave higher marks to those they thought wer black and harsher criticisms to whites because they expected more from whites
seeingi black
jennifer eberhardt- more a person's features are perceived as typical of their racial category, the more likely they are to elicit race based on responding, the blacker, the more criminal
reflexive bodily responses
implicit prejudice in people's facial-muscle responses and in the activation of their amygdala
blame the victim dynamic
poverty breeds higher crime rate, then use higher crime rate to justify continuing the discrimination against those who live in poverty
social identities
john turner- associate ourselves with certain groups and contrast ourselves wiht others
in group
us- people with whom one shares a common identity
out-group
them- those perceives as different or apart from one;s in-group
in-group bias
the tendency to favor one's own group,

fear and anger create aggression against citizens of different ethnicity or race creates racism and in turn new forms of terrorism (zimbardo)
scapegoat theory
the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
social facilitation
norman triplett- stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others
social loafing
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their effects toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable

-tug of war
-people acting as part of a group feel less accountable for their actions and worry less about waht others think
deindividuation
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occuring in groupsituations that foster arousal and anonymity
group polarization
the enhancement of a group's prevailing tendencies through disucssion within the group

-when highly prejudiced students discussed racial issues, they became more prejudiced
group think
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision- making group override a realistic appraisal for alternatives
-JFK's invasion of Cuba
-fed by conformity, overconfidence, self-justificaiton, group polarization
social control
the power of the situation
personal control
the power of the individual
minority influence
the power of one or two individuals to sway majorities
aggression
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or desroy

-interaction between biology and experience
genetic influences
genes influence human aggression

-extra Y chromosome more violent
-1 identical twin admits to having a violent tember than other does too
neural influences
neural systems that when stimulated inhibit or produce aggressive behavior

-diminished activity in frontal lobe
-frontal lobe-inhibits aggression, more likely if damaged, inactive, disconnected, not fully matured
biochemical influences
harmones, alcohol, and other substances in blood
-high testosterone=irritability, low tolerance frustration, assertiveness, impulsiveness
frustration-aggression principle
the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal- creates anger, which can generate aggression
-other stimuli- physical pain, personal insults, foul odors, hot temps
rejection-induced aggression
those led to feel socially excluded were later more likely to be aggressive

-more aggressive if experience taught us aggression pay
rape myth
the idea that some women invite or enjoy rap and get "swept away" while being taken
predisposition to sexual violence
media, deinhibition by alcohol, and a history of child abuse
social scripts
mental tapes of how to act, provided by our culture
catharsis hypothesis
false- we feel better if we blow off steam by venting emotions
conflict
a perceived imcompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas
social trap
a situation in which the confliction parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, became caught in mutually destructive behavior
-mutual betterment aggred- upon regulations, better communicatio, promoting awareness or our responsibilites toward community, nation
mirror image perceptions
as see people as untrustworthy, they see us the same way
more important thing about attraction
proximity- geographic nearness- friendship most powerful predictor
mere exposure effect
the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them
reward theory of attraction
we will like those whose behavior is rewaring to us and that we will continue relationships that offer more rewards than costs
passionate love
an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship
emotions
physical arousal and cognitive appraisal
adrenaline
makes the heart grow fonder
companionate love
the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined
equity
a condition in which poeple receive from a realtionship in proportion to what they give to it
self-disclosure
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others