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87 Cards in this Set

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What are the two criteria psychological tests must meet?
Reliability and validity
What is reliability?
Reliability is the consistency of the score yielded by a psychological test. (the consistency of the test's results)
What does validity mean?
Validity is the extent to which a test measures what it is designed to measure.
Define correlation coefficient.
A correlation coefficient is a mathematical expression of the relationship between two variables.
What does validity mean?
Validity is the extent to which a test measures what it is designed to measure.
What are the correlation coefficient's numerical boundaries?
-1 to +1
What does a -1 correlation coefficient mean?
A -1 correlation coefficient meas that two variables have a perfectly negative relationship.
What does a +1 correlation coefficient mean?
A +1 correlation coefficient means that two variables have a perfectly positive relationship.
What does a correlation coefficient of zero mean?
A zero correlation coefficient means that two variables have no relationship.
What is an independent variable?
An IV is the variable that is manipulated by the experimenter to see if it has an effect on the dependent variable.
What is a dependent variable?
A dependnet variable is the variable the experimenter measures to see if it is influenced by the IV.
The dependent variable depends on the _____ of the independent variable.
Level
Define internal validity.
Internal validity is the extent to which an experiment allows confident statements about cause and effect.
Define external validity.
External validity is the extent to which the experiment can be generalized to other circumstances.
What is a confound?
A confound is a variable that systematically changes along with the independent variable, potentially leading to a mistaken conclusion about the effect of the independent variable.
What are demand characteristics?
Demand characteristics are cues in the experiment that make participants aware of how the experimenter expects them to behave.
What is the difference between random sampling and random assignment?
Random sampling involves randomly selecting participants to be in the study so that everyone froma population has an equal chance of being a participant whereas random assignment involves randomly assigning participants (who are already in the study) to the various conditions of the experiment so that each participant has an equal chance of being in any of the conditions.
What does it mean when the difference between two groups or two conditions is said to statistically different? (use p-value in definition)
A probability level or p-value, is a number calculated with statistical techniques that tells researchers how likely it is that the results of their experiment occured by chance and not because of the IVs. The convention is to consider results significant if the p-value is less than 5% or .05. If p is less than .05, we call those results statistically significant.
What does a positive correlation coefficient indicate?
A positive correlation coefficient indicates that as one variable increases, the other variable increases as well.
The only way to determine causal relationships is with a(an)___________.
Experiment
What are the four (main) types of social influence?
Persuasion
Conformity
Obedience
Compliance
What is the definition of persuasion?
Persusion is changing private attitiude or belief as a result of receiving a message.
What is meant by the term conformity?
Conformity is changing behaviors or opinions to match the behaviors or or opinions of others.
Define obedience.
Obedience is changing behaviors in response to a direct order from an authority figure.
What is the definition of compliance?
Compliance is changing behaviors as a result of a direct request.
What is meant by social influence?
Social influence is a change in overt behavior caused by real or imagined pressure from others.
What motivates people to conform? (two things)
Informational social influence and normative social influence.
Define informational social influence?
Informational social influence is when you conform to what others are doing/saying because you want to choose something correctly. (For example, when a teacher asks a class to answer a question as a whole, you might conform with the majority because you want to answer correctly.)
Describe normative social influence.
Normative social influence is when you conform to the group in hopes to gain social approval.
What kind of situational factors are related to increased likelyhood of conformity in groups?
size of the group,
when the others are similar to us,
when the consensus of the rest of the group is unanimous,
the chameleon effect, the Werther effect.
Descibe the chameleon effect.
The chameleon effect refers to nonconscious mimicry of the postures, mannerisms, facial expressions, and other behaviors of one's interaction partners, such that one's behavior passively and unintentionally changes to match that of others in one's current social environment.
Describe the Werther effct.
Werther was the hero of a novel written more than two hundred years ago. The book winds up with a passage in which Werther dresses in boots, a blue coat and a yellow vest, sits at his desk with an open book, and shoots himself.In the next few years so many young men dressed themselves as Werther and sat at a desk with an open book to shoot themselves that the book was banned in several countries.
What is an example of a situational factor related to decreased likelyhood of conformity in groups?
The lone dissenter, you are much less likely to conform when there is one dissenter.
What is a contrast effect?
A contrast effect is the enhancement or diminishment of a perception as a result of immediately previous or simultaneous exposure to a stimulus that is of lesser or greater value in the same dimension.
What are Cialdini's 6 social psychological principles/heuristics?
Commitment/consistency
Social validation
Reciprocity
Scarcity
Liking
Authority
Describe the commitment/consistency heuristic.
This heuristic just means that people should stick with their commitments and be consistent and claims that commitment should be public, active, and voluntary in order to stick with them.
Descibe the social validation principle.
When in doubt, go with the majority opinion. (related to the goal of being accurate.)
Descirbe reciprocity.
If someone helps you, it pays to return the favor. (related to the goal of gaining social approval.)This principle is often exploited with free gifts.
Descibe the principle/heuristic of scarcity.
Scarce resources tend to be worth more and wanted more than abundant resources.
Descibe the principle of friendship/liking.
If a friend or someone else in your "in group" asks for a favor, it pays to say yes
Describe the authority principle.
It pays to follow the suggestions of a legitimate authority figure.
What is the "That's-not-all" technique and why does it work?
In this technique, a basic deal is made "sweeter." This technique definately works because people are told they are getting more for the same amount of money. (think of infomercials, they are selling a butcher knife... but "that's-not-all!" If you buy now, you will also get a deluxe chopper and cutting board!
Descibe the Burger experiment for the "that's-not-all" technique.
In the burger experiment, a bake sale is used to investigate the "That's-not-all" approach. Control subjects were told that a cupcake and two cookies are a dollar. Others were then told that the cupakes were a dollar, then a salesperson added two cookies to the deal at no extra cost. 40% bought from the control group and 75% bought when they bought cupcakes and "That's-not-all!"
Factors that lead people to resist social influence are termed ___________.
Omega factors
Describe the disrupt-then-reframe technique.
This technique is a resistance technique (used most often by door to door salespeople) where they must distrupt the customers perception of door to door scams and replace it with a more favorable conception(the offer)that should increase purchases by decreasing customer's resistance.
What is the reactance theory?
According to the reactance theory, we all value our freedom to decide how to act.When something (such as social pressure) threatens to take away that freedom, we often repond by doing the opposite of what we are being pressured to do.
Describe the Langer study at the Xerox copy line.
Langer approached students using a copy machine and made either a small request to cut in (just 5 copies) or a large request to cut in (20 copies).Sometimes no reason was given and sometimes a superficial, placebic reason was given (I need to make copies).And other times a good reason was given("I'm in a hurry). THe results showed that there was not a big difference between the placebic reason and the good reason. The small favor stayed about the same and the large favor %of compliance increased just slightly with a good reason. this shows the idea of mindless compliane. Sometimes we just comply automatically.
What is a heuristic?
A heuristic is like a rule of thumb.
Factors that lead people to resist social influence are termed ___________.
Omega factors
Describe the disrupt-then-reframe technique.
This technique is a resistance technique (used most often by door to door salespeople) where they must distrupt the customers perception of door to door scams and replace it with a more favorable conception(the offer)that should increase purchases by decreasing customer's resistance.
What is the reactance theory?
According to the reactance theory, we all value our freedom to decide how to act.When something (such as social pressure) threatens to take away that freedom, we often repond by doing the opposite of what we are being pressured to do.
Describe the Langer study at the Xerox copy line.
Langer approached students using a copy machine and made either a small request to cut in (just 5 copies) or a large request to cut in (20 copies).Sometimes no reason was given and sometimes a superficial, placebic reason was given (I need to make copies).And other times a good reason was given("I'm in a hurry). THe results showed that there was not a big difference between the placebic reason and the good reason. The small favor stayed about the same and the large favor %of compliance increased just slightly with a good reason. this shows the idea of mindless compliane. Sometimes we just comply automatically.
What is a heuristic?
A heuristic is like a rule of thumb.
What is the reactance theory?
According to the reactance theory, we all value our freedom to decide how to act. When something (such as social pressure) threatens that freedom, we often repeond by doing the opposite of what we are being pressure to do.
Describe the langer study at the Xeorox copy line.
langer approaches students using the copy machine and made either a small request to cut in (just 5 copies) or made a large request to cut in (20 copies). Sometimes no reason at all was given. Sometimes a superficial, placebic reason was given (i have to make copies) and other times a good reason was given ("I'm in a hurry."). There was not much difference between the placebic reason and the good reason, showing mindless compliance. Sometimes we just comply automatically.
What is a heuristic?
A heuristic is like a rule of thumb.
When are heuristics most like to be used?
There are two factors that increase the use of heuristics in compliance scenarios- uncertainty and cognitive load.
What is the foot-in-the-door tecnique and why does it work?
A small request (purposefully designed to gain 100% compliance) is followed by a large request ( which is the target request). People are more likely to comply (about 72% more likely) when both requests are made, than if just the second request was made alone. This is because of Escalation of commitment. Start off with a small request, then ask for something a little bit bigger, then bigger, etc.
Describe the bait and switch technique.
An item is advertised at an unbelievably low price at a shop. The objective is to encourage the customer to enter the shop’s premises with an intention to purchase. The customer is therefore BAITED. In the shop the customer is advised that the particular item is ‘no longer in stock’ or ‘not really good anyway’ and his attention is SWITCHED to another higher-priced item, often of an inferior brand. The merits of the substitute are promoted as the customer is encouraged to make the purchase. Invariably, this trick works, and the customer is BAITED and SWITCHED before he is even aware of what is really happening.
Describe low balling.
The low-ball refers to a compliance technique in which a demand of someone to agree to a request is followed by telling the person the real cost of the request. The number of people who maintain their first decision is larger than the number in the condition in which the real cost of the request is stated prior to the initial compliance.
What is the labeling technique?
This is when you assign the target a trait label ("you are a very generous person!")and then seek compliance with a label consistant request (Would you please donate to the endangered species fund?).
What is the legitimizing small favors technique?
In this technique, you take away the ability to make excuses.
For example, when asking to donate money, by saying "even a penny will help!" You take away the ability of the target to use the excuse of "well, I only have a little and it would look cheap to donate it." Without an excuse, more people feel they have to donate.
What three factors make commitment the strongest?
If the commitment is public, active and voluntary.
what are the two basic types of norms?
The two basic ttpes of norma are descriptive norms and injunctive norms.
Define descriptive norms.
Descriptive norms are what most people people do in a social situation, regardless of whether it is considered right or wrong.
Injunctive norms are...
what is considered appropriate and correct behavior in a situation, regardless of what others are actually doing.
What makes reciprocation different from cooperation?
Reciprocation is when someone does something for you first- then you return the favor. Here, there is a powerful sense of social obligation. In the cooperation focus, there is no sense of social obligation because you are suppose to perform the favor first.
Which tends to be more successful, reciprocation or cooperation?
Recprocation tends to be way more successful because people feel obliged to comply.
What is the door-in-the-face technique and why does it work?
The door-in-the-face technique is when the initial request is so large that no one agrees to it. The second request(the target request)is smaller by comparison, so people agree to it. This technique works because the second request seems so minute compared to the first, that people agree since it is such a small favor.
Describe Cialdini's door-in-the-face experiment.
Cialdini asked college students if they would serve as unpaid juvenile delinquency counselors for 2 hours a week, for 2 years. No one agreed to this request. The second request was to ask if they would be willing to take a group of juvenile delinquents on a 2 hour trip to the zoo. Of those who who were asked both favors, about %50 agrred. Only %15 of people just asked the target request agreed.
What makes us like people more and makes us more likely to comply to his/her request?
Three main things that make us like people more include:
Similarity
Attractiveness
Seems like a friend
What is the Hofling study of obedience?
In this study, an unknown doctor tells nurses to go to a certain room and give the patient there a 1000ml dosage of some drug. About 21 out of 25 of the nurses (knowing that this high of a dosage is lethal) obey.
Why do so many of the nurses obey the unknown doctor in the Hofling study?
Such a high number of nurses complied to the doctor's request because their obedience to authority.
What is the general setup for the Milgram study?
Someone asks you to deliver painful electric shocks to a fellow participant. In one case- a researcher in a lab coat demands more shocks, in another case-a fellow subject demands more shocks, there is another where the victim demands more shocks and yet another case where two researchers issue contrary commands for giving shocks. In all the cases, the percentage of people complying to the demand of more shocks was significantly high (the highest) when a researcher in a lab coat demands the shocks. This was about 65% of people. Only 20% obeyed to a fellow subject and no one obeyed to the victim or to the two researchers issuing contrary demands. This shows how people really do obey those they feel have authority.
Out of all people, which group of people (catergorized by career) would not go all the way in the Milgram study of obedience to authority and why?
Out of all career categories, electrical engineers would not go all the way when delivering the shocks. This is because they know how powerful volts are and how bad they can hurt a person- that it didn't matter to them who was in authority. They knew and trusted themselves in making the right decision.
Define self-presentation.
The process through which we try to control the impressions people form of us.
What is the dramaturgical perspective?
THe perspective that much of social interaction can be thought of as a play, with actors, performers, settings, scripts, roles, props, etc.
What does it mean to be a high self-monitor?
People identified as high self monitoring are almost always motivated to mangae how others view them. They are adept both at assessing what others want and at tailoring their behavior to meet those demands.
Describe the experiment conducted by Mark Zanna Susan Pack about opinion conformity as an ingratiation strategy.
In this experiment, women anticipated interacting with men who were either desirable or undesirable and who held either traditional or untraditional views of women. Women about to interact with the undesirable man did not shift their gender-related opinions. Women about to interact with the desirable man, however, adjusted their opinions to match his more closely. These findings demonstrate that people sometimes chnage their public opinions to get desirable others to like them.
What is the multiple auidence dilemma?
The multiple audienc dilemma is a situation where a person needs to present different images to different audiences, often at the same time.
How do communicators effectively deal with the multiple audience dilemma?
To effectively deal with this dilemma, there are many things a communicator could do:
-They could segregate their audiences
-They could choose one audience as more important than another
-They could "moderate" their presenations by presenting their opinions as falling somewhere in the middle.
*They could manage the multiple audience dilemma by capitalizing on the different information the audiences may have about us.
What is self handicapping?
Self handicapping is the behavior of with drawing effort or creating obstacles to one's future success.
Why do people self handicap?
People ingage in self handicapping in order to increase the likelyhood that people will attribute their success to some oustanding ability. That you were able to succeed even with all the obstacles you incountered.
What is conspicuous consumption?
The acquisition and display of expensive items to attract attention to one's wealth or to suggest that one is wealthy.
Why do people engage in conspicuous consumption?
People do so to communicate their status, high status=high power
What is a negative correlation coefficient mean?
A negative correlation coefficient indicates that as one variable increases, the other variable decreases.
Define social psychology.
The scientific study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and behavors are influenced by other people.