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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are heurisitics?
rules of thumb use to faciliate the processing and use of the larege amount of information that people are exposed to over course of day
What is the difference between a representative heuristice and a availability heuristic?
representative-judgement based on how similar to typical member of a group
availability-use information most readily available from memory
What is the base rate fallacy?
tendency to ignore or underutilize information related to base rates (frequency with which event or characteristic occurs in population)
What is impression formation?
how people make judgements about others
People form impressions on the basis of very limited information
What is impression management?
how people try to control the judgements that others make about them
What are exemplars?
concrete behaviors that we have seen a person perform
What are mental abstractions?
As our experience with a person increases our impressions are determined more by mental abstractions derived from repeated observations of a person's behavior.
What factors affect impression formation?
central traits
primacy effect
negativity bias
physical attractiveness
false consensus bias
social context
What are prototypes?
mental models of the typical qualities of certain groups or categories

another type of mental framework used in social judgements
How do central traits affect impression formation?
carry more weight than other traits since they provide unique information and are associated with a large number of other characteristics

What is the primacy effect?
• When a person is presented with discrepant information about another, his or her impression is usually most influenced by the information presented first.

influences impression formation
What is the negativity bias?
Negative traits are usually more heavily weighted than positive traits.

influences impression formation
What is false consensus bias?
the tendency to overate the degree of similarity between people.

influences impression formation
Why is social context important in impression formation
Rosenhan study with pseudopatients (confederates). - Behaviors tend to be perceived in a manner that is consistent with the social context
What are 2 methods of impression management?
How is ingratiation used in impression management?
Techniques used by a low-power person to enhance her image in the eyes of a high power person
What is the difference between exemplification and supplicfication?
exemplification-convincing others you are a good person

supplification-convincing others that you are needy and deserving
What is the difference between high and low self-monitors?
High self monitors are extremely sensitive to the impression that others form of them. High self monitors are sensitive to group behavioral norms and adapt. Low self monitors do not.
What is an attribution?
process of determining or inferring why behavior has occurred

attribution theory-Fritz Heider
What is fundamental attribution bias?
Observers tend to overestimate the role of dispositional factors and underestimate the role of situational factors (i.e.; attributing task failure to lack of intelligence rather than the task or the environment.)
What is correspondent inference theory?
Observers infer an actor's personal dispositions from the actors behaviors - an inference is "correspondent" - concluding that an actor's kindness is due to inherent kindness. When making inference's about an actor's behavior an observer considers the intentionality i.e., the number of uncommon effects or consequences of the behavior. An Observer is likely to conclude that an actors behavior is dispositional.
What is the covariation "ANOVA" principle?
Observers look for a pattern of behavior to determine it's cause.
• Consensus information - Do other actors behave the same way in the same situation
• Distinctiveness information - Does the actor act the same way in response to other entities
• Consistency information - Does the actor consistently act this way in other situations.
What information do observers consider when making causal attributions?
• Consensus information - Do other actors behave the same way in the same situation
• Distinctiveness information - Does the actor act the same way in response to other entities
• Consistency information - Does the actor consistently act this way in other situations.
What dimensions can be used to understand attributions about success and failure?
The temporary-stable is weighed heavily for predicting the success or failure for an ac-tor. An O is more likely to predict future outcomes if current success-failures are attrib-uted to stable factor rather than a temporary factor. The internal-external factor is impor-tant for determining whether or not an observer will reward or punish the actor for her behavior. An observer is more likely to reward or punish an actor if she attributes the actor's behavior to internal factors than to external factors.
What types of attributions do people make about their own behaviors?
actor-observer bias
self-serving bias
self-perception theory
social comparison theory
What is the actor-observer bias?
the fundamental attribution bias does NOT extend to self attribution. Most people are likely to attribute the own behaviors to SITUATIONAL FACTORS.

Seligman found that life insurance salesmen who attribute their misfortunes to stable dispositional factors tend to be less successful than salespeople who do not make such attributions.
What is self-serving bias?
An individual's attribution about her own behavior is influenced by the consequence of the behavior.

Taking credit for success, blaming external factors on failure.


Positive - dipositional factors
Negative - Situational factors
What accounts for a person's willingness to continue striving for success in the face of failure?
high level of achievement motivation-attribute failures to effort (unstable, internal factor)
How do depressed individuals not follow the self-serving bias?
Depressed individuals are likely to attribute their failures to stable-internal-global factors and successes to temporary-external causes.
What is self-perception theory?
Daryl Bem - people make attributions about their own behaviors in much the same way that they make attributions about others. People rely on their observations of external behaviors and the circumstances [Schachter and Singer's epinephrine study used as an example].
What is Schachter & Singer's experiment on perception of emotion?
subjects injected with epinepherine and then told the true effects or not of the injection
subject put in a waiting room with confederate told to act angry or euphoric
misinformed or ignorant subjects acted just like the confederate and informed subjects did not
When children are given an external reward for performing an intrinsically rewarding activity, what happens?
children receiving a reward showed far less interest in the activity than those who did not
overjustification hypothesis-attribute doing the activity to the external reward and stop activity when the reward is terminated
What is social comparison theory?
look to others to evaluate or judge our own behavior

most often made with people who are similar, but undesirable behavior made with downward comparisons
How does learned helplessness contribute to depression?
tendency to make internal, stable, and global attributions for undesirable events
produce a sense of hopelessness
One way to reduce undesirable behavior using an attribution change program?
deliberately encouraging a person to misattribute his or her behavior to external factors

insomnia study
How does a person who is depressed attribute a recent promotion?
to luck
What do dissatisfied partners in a marriage attribute negative events in their marriage?
global, stable characteristics of their partner

positive events to unstable causes
Which health interventions have better long-term outcomes?
ones that emphasize self-control and personal responsibility

less likely to attribute success to external factors
What is the autokinetic effect?
perceptual phenomenon in which a stationary point of light appears to move in a darkened room
In Sherif's study, what happened to group members when they were in a group?
alone-estimates how far light moved varied widely
group-estimates conformed to the group norm-convergence effect
What was Asch's non-ambiguous task study?
when subjects placed in a group of confederates and asked which of lines matched-subjects would conform even when obviously incorrect
What factors affect a person's willingness to change?
group unanimity
group size
group cohesiveness
personality characteristics
What are some methods for inducing compliance?
foot-in-the-door technique
door-in-the-face (more effective)
low-ball technique-creates obligation
In Milgram's studies, when was the person less likely to obey?
closer the learner was to the teacher less likely the teacher to obey
when experimenter gave orders by telephone, teacher less likely to obey
when location moved from University to downtown warehouse less likely to obey
when assistant teacher (confederate) refused to obey experimenter's orders, teacher less likely to obey
What are the six bases of social power?
What is referent power?
target attracted to, likes, or identifies with the influencing agent

when person is liked or admired
What is coercive power?
an individual influences another by punishments
What is reward power?
when an individual influences another by valued rewards
What is expert power?
power through superior ability, skills or knowledge
What is legitimate power?
The target believes the influencing agent posses specific informaition that is needed by the target person
What is informational power?
influencing agent has information needed by the target person
What sources of power are most successful?
expert and referent power
these two can interact to produce incremental power