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122 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Factors that are involved with opening feelings with one another; what happens at the beginning stages when you like someone
Interpersonal Attraction
Distance; ind. close in this tend to like each other; can use this as an indicator of how much you like someone
Proximity alone does not get attraction; must have _____ as well with will facilitate attraction
We like people who are like us; "birds of a feather flock together"- opposites do not attract
We like people who like us; but we REALLY like people who used to hate us and now they like us
Individual incounters someone in a good mood, then everytime they are around this person, they themselves are in a good mood; also can work in a neg way - if around someone in a bad mood, then you will also be in bad mood and you will not like them
Reinforcement Affect Model
Attributions are causes that we assign to bx; first type of sexual attraction is arousal; can misattribute this arousal to the individual; i.e. arousal from sonething else (scary movie) is misattributed to this person
Misattributed arousal
One of the most important things in attraction; huge role in interpersonal attraction
Physical attractiveness
Physcial attractivenss is _____ _____; however it it general to everyone
Cultural dependent
If a person believes that a certain ____ matches what is normal, then that person will be attractive
Fluctuations on what we think is attractive; based on another group
Comparison factor
Individual tend to be matched up in established relationships
Matching hypothesis
Ind will give a _____ rating to their significant other than themselves
Social Perceptions:
Causes of bx; what it is that is the cause will spend cognitive effort in this task because if we feel as though we understand why people do what they do, we will have a sence of control
Social Perceptions:
Locus of causality; involves where is the cause?
When the cause in some wher in the environment/ setting; person wasn't the cause, but something in the situation; i.e. going to the hospital = cause for speeding
External/ situational
WHen the cause is something about traits; who we are is the cause; caused by something by something; he was wreckless, smart, clumsy
Internal/ dispositional
Other attributional factors:
Fluctuates; is varient; i.e. getting lucky and studing hard = both can change
Lucky/ studying = Unstable = when it can change
Smart/ athlete = when it can't change; stable
When the cause for the bx is uncontrollable like strep throat or drinking and throwing up (controlable)
This leads to generation of long potential list of attributions; i.e. if you think you did badly on a test, and you did good or vis-visa.
Unexpected outcomes / failer or success
If if impacts you, will generate a long; i.e. if YOU are a smart student, and YOU did badly on a test = long list of attribution
Tells us when we form internal/ external attributions
Kelley's Covaration Theroy
The extent to which this person does this bx in this setting
The extent to which this person does this bx in other settings
The extent to which other people do this bx in this setting
If you don't have enough info. to form an attribution, then will just ______
use the info that we have
Kelley's Covaration Theory; manipulating the cause: When you reduce the importance of the cause if other potential causes exist; when you question your attribution; i.e. see a person strike out and hear that he has the flu
Discounting Principle
Kelley's Covaration Theory; manipulating the cause: Can strengthen the importance of causes if factor is present that should inhit the bx; you think attribution is correct, and now it is stronger; i.e. See person strike out and hear that the pitcher is the worst in the league.
Augmenting Principle
"other directed"; tend to overemphysize internal cuase; other people are doing things b/c of who they are, not b/c of environment
Fundamental Attribution error
We do fundamental attribution error b/c: This is whatever we attend to; the cause is whatever our focus is on; was the reason or cuase; i.e. bad batter or good pitcher?
Focus of attention
We do fundamental attribution error b/c: Three stages in this...
Effort Requried
Effort Required:
stage 1=
Identifcation of the bx; figuring out the "what"
Effort Required:
stage 2 =
Automatic internal attributions
Automatic internal attribution are more
reliable b/c the brain likes it easy
Effort Required:
Step 3
Effortful external attributions
External attributions, two things must happen first:
1. Low distraction (b/c external attributions take a lot of effort)
2. Have a lot of info about the situation
Attributional errors; why they happen:
third thing
Culture attributions:
Those culture whose focus is on the ind; "you, you, you... me me me"
Culture attribution:
About the group; doesnt focus on person
Self-directed error; why did we do that? Tend to internalize succuess and externalize failures
Self-serving bias
These type of explinations imply motivation; involves desire/ intent/ purpose; the person has gained from this
"Hot" explinations
These type of explinations are like computers; we do this because thats how we are made; no motive/desire/purpose
"Cold" explinations
WHen depressed people/ low levels of self-esteem do not exibit "hot" approach; if they fail, they will take the blame
Depressive Realism
Has to do with the "self serving bias" at a group level; i.e. "we" are smart, "my team" had a lot of injuries
Ultimate attribution error
Also called Impression management; our desire to manipulate how others look/see us; managemnt of impressions you have of me
Can do self-presentation by: letting people know things about yourself
Direct tactics
Direct tactics:
Saying something good about yourself
Direct tactics:
Saying something bad about yourself
One way to self-deprecate:
Occurs post-event; done something wella nd then you down-play the event
One way to self deprecate:
Occurs before/ prior to the event; set up an expectancy for failure; study a lot, then when asked say "I think I'll do alright."
Direct tactics:
Bumper sticker on cars; what we wear; what is on wall in an office
Physical environment
How you can do self-presentation: manage our impression thorugh our group membership
Indirect tatics
Indirect tatics:
Increase our assoication with a successful group b/c it makes us look good; like wearing an MSU t-shirt after a win; "we" were successful
Basking in Reflected Glory or BIRG
Indirect tatics: Decrease our association with unsuccessful groups; "they" lost; will decrease wearing of t-shirts after the game
Cutting off reflected failure or CORF
Indirect tatics: Concern with what is going to happen in future; privatly may BIRG but publically will...
Cutting off future failure or COFF
If you are highly identified to a group, you will not
Cut off reflected failure or CORF
If you are CORF, or concerned about the future, you will not
BIRG or bask
Self perception/ views of ourself
Mental representations of ourself; i.e. student, friend, daughter; like a package of files and it is the "largest one at the front of the door"
It is because of self-schemas that _____ happens or the fact that one is quicker to respont to questions about ourselves than any other question
Self-reference effect
These are self beliefs that we have about ourself; preceived
Where self-knowleges comes from:
- we get an idea of who we are based on what we see of ourselves in others; how poeple respond to us, how they feel; how they act
"looking glass self"
Where self-knowleges comes from: I don't care what others are saying with respect to this schema, I'm teh one who really knows
True inner self
Can self idenity change? yes because of ____, ____, ____. However it is resistant to change and probably not going to happen; if it does, it will be slow and gradual
Attention, encode and retrieval
When someones self-knowledge changes, it can be
Situation when individual is afraid that they might fail at some important task; set it up some way that provides an excuse for failure; i.e. "I didn't study" or "I stayed up late the night before"
Self-handicapping: WHen you don't study and then you pass the test =
Ego enhancement
Self-handicapping: Afraid you are going to fail at something, so make an excuse for failure
Self-confidence; our believes that we have the ability to achieve a certain level on a task
Self-efficacy sources: What we learn from ourselves
Past success/ failures
Self-efficacy sources: If a 4.0 student took a class and got an E, would you take the class? What you learn from others.
Observational learning
Self-efficacy sources: Other people telling you "you can/ can't do this"; Hard for this to override past successes and failures, especially when there is more than one
Self-efficacy sources: Perceived level of psysiological arousal
Involves our critical self-evaluations
Self-esteem type:
Overall self-evaluation; "I am a good person"
Self-esteem type:
One type of individual trait/ domain; "I am a good friend/ student/ athlete."
Self-esteem type:
Enduring evaluation; long-term; how you usually feel about yourself.
Self-esteem type:
Evaluation at that particular time, greater flucations; if something bad happens, will have a lower self esteem
Self-esteem type:
Own individual characteristics; "How smart are you?"
Self-esteem type:
Groups of people; "How caring is my youth group at church." Gender...
Socail/ collective
The group with the most aggression was....
High self-esteem, unstable
The group with the lowest aggression was....
Low self-esteem both stable and unstable
If we are motivated to like ourselves, and we can choose, then why are there people with low self-esteem?
Subjective well being
Subjective well-being:
They may not know who they are
Confused self-concept
Subjective well-being:
They have a predominatnly _____ schema
Because of ____ and ____, the mentatilty of people with low self-esteem seem to think that success is out of reach
Ego-enhancement and ego-protection
People who do ego enhancemnt =
High self-esteem individuals
Poeple with ego protection
Low self-esteem ind.
People with _____ had an exagerated amount of post-decision dissonance
low self esteem
This states that people with low self esteem has two contridicting motives
Double bind of low self esteem
Motive one of Double bind of low self esteem states that
Low self esteemers want the things that everyone else has; want positive feedback
Motive two of Double bind of low self esteem states that low self esteem people have the need to varify there self in they eyes of others; want others to tell them they they are BAD at something or neg feedback
Self-varification (this one wins)
If low-self esteem ind. scored high on a test (where the higher the score the lower the stress), then they actually had _____ levels of stress because....
"the bad stuff fits"
Depression and self-concept:
People with severe depression scored lowest on global but much higher in _____ b/c ...
Specific b/c "my three dollars is worth your three dollars."
Stratagy to keep evaluation of best area high: low level of self-esteem people tend to not compare themselves with people who are lower than them except in a specific area where they feel good
Down-ward socail comparison
Stratagy to keep evaluation of best area high: This is negative except in best areas where all of a sudden, it is positive
Stratagy to keep evaluation of best area high: Will do this is best area only: internilize success and externilze failures
Self-serving bias
unjustifiable, negative attitude toward a group and its members
Sources of Prejudice:
Why "they" are down here and why "they" are higher up
Social inequalities
Sources of Prejudice:
When loaded cognitively, we are more likely to rely on prejudice; i.e. during a test
Cognitive load
Sources of Prejudice:
Just going along with the group
Sources of Prejudice: Churches; greatest predictor is religiousity; business; schools
Sources of Prejudice:
Not everyone can get what they want
Limited resources
Sources of Prejudice: They do it b/c thats what they were taught/ reared to prejudice
Socail learning
Can adopt prejudical attitudes about people hwo are battling against us to get the limited resources
Realistic conflict theory
We can use our group membership or collective self-esteem to make ourselves feel better
Self-esteem hypothosis
Two key components to Self-esteem hypothosis: WHen a threat has been made to our social idenity we can use collective self-essteem by:
1. Can enhance our identify by saying bad/ hostile things about others; also called _____
2. Can enhance our own group; say good things about the "we" in the group
1. Out-group derogation
2. In- group favortism
Will do out-group derogation in order to get back at someone; especailly if you are _____
highly identified
In our brains, we have schemas that help us have short cuts
Categorization side effect: The we's and the thems
Schemas that are different in complexity
Differnt Schematic Complexity
Differnt Schematic Complexity can lead to a big complex "file" for the _____ and a small one for the _____
Having differnt size files for each group will lead to _____ or the tendency to have more extreme evaluation for outgroup than incroup
Outgroup extrimity effect
OEE or outgroup extrimity effect is a _____ process
(From neg to pos eval of...)

This happens b/c we have limited cog capacity; when we learn more things about the ingroup, it is a smaller percent then we we learn things about the outgroup; it just sticks in our minds
Outgroup Extrimity effect
When you have one person in the ingroup that you really want to be in the group, or you really don't want to be in the group
Ingroup extrimity effect (IEE)
What drives the IEE is...
increased levels of group identification
(From neg to pos eval of)

The NI or negative ingroup represents the ....
black sheep
If you don't care
If you care a lot