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72 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Describe Social Psychology?
The way individuals think, feel and behave is social context.
What does social psych rely on, like other sciences, to support their data?
systematic approach of the scientific method
What are distinctive characteristics of social psychology?
Focus on individual... social contexts and behaviours
what is "socialness"?
Non social factors that affect social thoughts, feelings, behaviours and/or social factors influence non social thoughts, feelings and behaviours.
(NONSOCIAL AFFECTING SOCIAL AND SOCIAL AFFECTING NONSOCIAL)
Social psychology is applicable to..
many careers and interests
In an experiment, the power of SOCIAL CONTEXT showed that participants' judgment of a political candidate's performance in a debate were influences more by...
the REACTIONS OF OTHER PEOPLE to some remarks made by the candidate than by the remarks themselves..
What other fields are related to social psych?
sociology, clinical psychology, personality psych, and cognitive psych.
EXPLAIN social context
the presence of others can have an effect on individuals... peoples judgments can be influenced more by others reactions to things.
Does social psych concentrate on the individual or group level?
individual level
SOCIOLOGY
how study varies as a function of social and economic class
CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY
various therapies for people with antisocial personalities who exhibit great degrees of the study
PERSONALITY PSYCH
questionnaire to identify one group of individuals who are very high and low in action toward the other group
COGNITIVE PSYCH
manipulate exposure...measure the thoughts and concepts that automatically activate
SOCIAL PSYCH
manipulate various kinds of contact between individuals of different groups and examine the effect of these manipulations
What did Milgram study?
individuals vulnerability to the destructive commands of authority
WHo was important figure for social psych?
Adolf Hitler: shows how many problems and behaviours can be effected by social context and interference
INTERACTIONIST PERSPECTIVE
individuals personality and environmental characteristics influence behaviour.
Pluralistic approach
different topics require different kinds of investigates and research techniques
"HOT" perspective
focuses on EMOTIONS and MOTIVATION as determinants of out thoughts and actions
"COLD" perspective
COGNITION, the way peoples thoughts affect how they feel, what they want, what they do.
International and multicultural perspectives
part of pluralistic approach
SOCIAL COGNITION
how people perceive, remember, interpret info about themselves and others
SOCIAL NEUROSCIENCE
relationship btw neural and social processes
BEHAVIOURAL GENETICS
subfield: psych that examines the told of genetic factors in behaviour
EVOLUTIONARY PSYCH
principles of evolution to understand human social behaviour
CULTURE
system of enduring meanings, beliefs, values, assumptions, institutions, and practices shared by a large groups of people and passed on from one generation to the next
CROSS-CULTURE RESEARCH
research designed to compare and contrast people of different cultures
MULTICULTURAL RESEARCH
examines racial and ethnic groups within cultures
HYPOTHESIS
testable prediction about the conditions under which n event will occur
THEORY
organized set of principles used to explain observed phenomenon.... ALL ARE ELEGANT AND PRECISE.. LEAD TO A BETTER HYPOTHESIS
what is the criteria of a theory?(3 things)
simple, comprehensive, generative.....
Basic research
goal is to increase the understanding of human behaviour, often testing hypothesis based on theory
Applied Research
Goal to enlarge the understanding of naturally occurring events... find solutions to practical solutions
Operational Definition
specific procedures for manipulating of measuring a conceptual variable
Conceptual Variables
need to change into a manipulated or measurable variable to study ( these are intangibles)
Construct Validity
the manipulations and variables that were meant to be measured are manipulated and measured
(AKA the experiment was valid)
Self- report
participants disclose their thoughts, feelings, desires and actions
are self reports always accurate?
no: peoples memories from the past is prone to error
bogus pipeline technique
participants are lead to believe that their responses will verified by an infallible lie detector
interval- contingent self reports
report experiences at regular intervals once a day to reduce error of self reports
signal- contingent self-reports
report as soon as possible after being signalled to do so by pager or text
event- contingent self reports
report on designated set of events as son as possible after events have occurred
INTERRATER RELIABILITY
degree to which different observers agree on their observations ( on the same behaviour)
Archival Studies ?
1; advantage?
2. limitation?
3 good for?
examining existing records of past events and behaviours
1. researcher knows did not influence behaviour by their presence
2. not always complete
3. cultural and historical trends
RANDOM SAMPLING
select participants so everyone in population has equal chance of being in study
Correlational research
measure the association between variables that are not manipulated by the researcher
Correlation Coefficient
statistical measure of strength and direction of 2 variables
Random Assignment
method of assigning participants so each has an equal chance of being in experiment
Experiment ( 2 things needed)
can demonstrate casual relationships because 1) control over events 2) participants randomly assigned
Independent variable
experimenters MANIPULATE to see if affects the dependent variable
dependent variable
what is MEASURED to see if affected by independent variable
Subject Variable
variable that characterizes pre-existing differences among participants
Internal validity
know that your manipulations caused the change
Experiment Expectancy Effects
when an experimenters expectations about the results of an experiment affect their behaviour toward a participant and influence the participants results
External Validity
reasonable confidence that the results of a study would be obtained for other people in other situations
Mundane Realism
experimental situation resembles places and events in the real world
Experimental realism
experimental procedures involving participants lead them to behave naturally and spontaneously
deception
method that provides false info to participants
confederate
accomplice of experimenter who deals with participants and acts if they are also a participant
meta-analysis
review evidence and study to review reliability and strength of particular effects
informed consent
deliberate, voluntary decision to participate based on researchers explanation of research
debriefing
after research completed, disclosure made to participant, 1.explains purpose
2. attempts to resolve feelings
3. emphasis on contribution to science
self-concept
sum total of individuals beliefs about their own personal attributes (made up of self-schemas)
self-schema
belief people hold about themselves that guides the processing of self-relevant information
affective forecasting
predicting how one would feel in response to the future
self-perception theory
when internal cues are difficult to interpret, people gain self-insight by observing their own behaviour
facial feedback hypothesis
changes in facial expression can trigger corresponding changes in the subjective experience of emotion.
overjustification effects
natural (intrinsic) motivation diminish for activities that become associated with reward or other extrinsic(not part of someones natural) factors
social comparison theory
people evaluate their own abilities and opinions by comparing themselves to others
two-factor theory of emotion
experience of emotion is based on two factors: physiological arousal and a cognitive interpretation of that arousal
dialecticism
eastern system of thought: accepts the coexistence of contradictory characteristics within a single person
self-esteem
a persons positive and negative self-evaluations