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134 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
__ __ is based on Charles Darwin and is the psychological traits and social behaviors that enhance our chance of survival.
Evolutionary psychology
Nature selects those traits best adaptive for survival = __ __
natural selection
All our traits were adapted throughout our ___. (Ex: why do we get jealous?)

We're all from the same ___.

Every trait we have is from our __ __
ancestry
mold
caveman ancestor
Why is the father of evolutionary psych?
Buss
Humans can adapt and ___. We're really ___, as we adapt in any culture.
learn
flexible
___ = enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, traditions shared by group of people and transmitted to the next generations.
Culture
Culture is ___ we learn. Some things are wired in, but most are __ from culture.
WHERE

learned
Cultures are very ___. For example, appropriate behavior and personal space.
Diverse
Cultures are also ___. We have the same norms for ___ and ___, etc.
similar
friendship
status
__ and __ are differnt in different cultures.
Gestures and meanings
__ and __ are the 2 things people judge on.
Race
Gender
___ = characteristics we associate with male and female; a social construction
Gender
Men and women are more __ than different. Obvious physical differences include:
* Women have more __ and men have more muscle
* Puberty comes 2 years __ for boys
* __ are more depressed and have more anxiety (INTERNALIZING)
* __ have more aggressions (External)
* Women have a better sense of __
* __ are more likely to become alcoholic and kill themselves, but women ___ to kill themselves more.
Alike
fat
later
Women
Men
Smell
Men; attempt
People didn't used to study __ differences. Goes back to the late ___, when intelligence difference that males are ___ than females. The researchers couldn't prove this.
gender
1800s
smarter
In the 80s, people are studying just to find the ___, not to see them as ___. YOu're talking about gender difference ____
differences
Problems
AVERAGES
Gender differences are more __ and __ differences.
social
psychological
Are gender differences due to __ or ___?
Genetics
Environment
During childhood:
Boys are less ___ (closeness, self-disclosure), more ___ (want to separate themselves from their parents), are more aggressive, and play in __ groups
GIRLS value __ __ in friendships and relationships, tend to play in __ groups with more __
intimate
independent
bigger

social connection
smaller
sharing
In Adulthood:
Women emphasize ___, they describe themselves in terms of ___, are more in tune with others ___, more ___, and have more __ friendships.

Men talk a lot about __ and women talk a lot about ___
relationships
relationships
emotions
nurturing
intimate

STUFF
relationships
You can have different perceptions of people....__ __. If you describe a person using stereotypical adj., one will know if male or female.
Social perceptions
Males and females differ the most in __ __
social styles
__ __ is a sociolinguist who studies language and how people use it.
Debra Tanner
Social styles depends on the __ they are in....women are more in __ roles and males are in more strict __ roles.
context
nuturing
business
In social styles, men are __, task focused and ___. They interrupt people more, smile less and ___ at you.

Women show more __ __, smile more and __ to the speaker.
directive
driven
stare

eye contact
defer
___ = behavior inteded to hurt. Studied by __ __.
Aggression
Nicki Crick
Men are ___ aggressive with war, fighting, hunting, murder. Where women are more __ or ___ agressive.
physically
socially, relationship
With sex, the stereotypes is that males are more open to __ sex, then __ sex more, and have more __ and __ insident.
casual
initiate
hit and run
People have sex fantasies about who they are ___ to. Men are more __ driven, where women have __ fantasies.
attracted
lust
romance
David Buss believed there were no differences in __ __ when adaptive challenges were the same. (ex: food, need to have temp. regulated. BUT, where adaptive challenged were different, males and females showed ___
Mating Preferences
Differences
In mating preferences, males show more __ __...they're more aggressive when competing for partners because of ___ strategies
sexual initiative
reproductive
In mating preferences, females try to make sure their child ___ until they can live on their own. Males must make sure a kid is __ before they put too much time into it.
survives
theirs
males look for __ in females (young, curves, fair skin), which females look for __ in males (provides food and care for young)
fertility
committment
Buss says it's important for males to mate __ and females to mate ___
Widely
Wisely
over 37 cultures, Buss found that men get more jealous over sexual ___ and women get more jealous over ___ infidelity
infidelity
romantic
__ __ = you start with an effect and move backwards to explain it. You can't go wrong. It's like hindsight bias. I've got the effect, now I'llmake up any story I want about it.
Retrospective explanations.
List 3 criticisms of evolutionary phsychology
retrospective explanations
Reinforcing sterotypes
Ability to adapt is key
__ __ = reinforces general gender sterotypes. Makes it sound that aggressiveness and infidelity is natural. It's ridiculous! We're not just victims of biology.
Reinforcing stereotypes
__ to __ is __ = theis theory isn't perfect, but it shows that we can adapt and learn from our culture. We can always learn and reason.
Abilty to adapt is key.
__ __ = set expectations of norms for males and females.
Gender roles
We learn gender roles through gender __ (the training parents use to socialize their kids on how males and females are supposed to act)
socialization
Culture varys in ___ roles. Ex: agriculture countries have more traditional roles, but western cultures are more ___. (we lean towards tradition)
equal
Overtime, __ and __ towards gender has changed. More women in college for example.
attitude
behavior
__ __ help with gender socialization. It's the reason siblings can be so different.
peer influences
Increasing importance of peers around __ and child adolesence.
puberty
Hibbard's study found that girls really socialize with their peers and would try to __ their peers. Very discouraging of __ behavior in other girls.
Socialize
agentic
Boys are usually ___ (Status oriented)...there's a leader who makes fun of others and they goof around. ___
agentic
Girls are usually ___ *value connection and symmetry. Not making fun of others but harmony
Communal
Gender differences and socliazation can be seen in ___ and ___ __
commercials
fairy tales
___ perspective is best for gender. It's a combo of biological and evolutionary. Culture supports and amplifies __ tendencies
Interactionist
biological
Alice Eagly and Role theory--________________
Gender differences are due to the ROLES that men and women are cast into in the world

Ex: men as bosses, so strong and assertive. Women as teachers, so caring and supporting.
___ = changing your behavior due to real or imagined group pressure.
conformity
___ = outwardly conforming even if we don't want to go along; direct command = obedience
compliance
___ = we really do believe in what the group is pressure us to do
acceptance
Compliance can lead to ___
acceptance
Name 3 people who did classic conformity studies.
Sherif
Solomon Asch
Stanley MIlgran
Explain sherif's conformity study.
He sturied norm formation experiments and the power of suggestibility
Explain Solomon Asch's conformity study.
GRoup pressure study with the 3 lines. 6th person of 7 participants conformed to the groups answer.

75% conformed at least once and there was no real pressure or rewards for conforming
Explain Stanley Milgran's conformity study.
Obedience stueis with the shock administered to the learner/confederate. 2/3 of peopel obeyed to end of experiment.
What breeds obedience? (3 things)
emotional distance from the victim (more obedience when far away with little contact)

closeness and legitimacy of authority (compliance dropped to 21% when orders were given over the phone)

Institutional authority
Foot-in-the-door can cause ___.
conformity
___ __ can lead to blaming the victim. We're hurting someone and we don't want to think about that, so we just don't like the victim.
Cognitive dissonance
Power of the stiuation...going against __ __ is difficult! __ can result from social forces (situations can force people to do cruel and evil things)
social norms
Evil
Why are we so shocked about conformity?
Fundamental attribution error---we underestimate the situational power.
How do you get someone to conform? List 2 factors.
Group size (about 3-5 people works best)

Unanimity (just one other person who disagrees with the group will help break conformity...ex: choosing where to eat with friends)
List 3 times in which we conform.
Cohesion
Status
Public response and no prior commitment
The more ___ a group is, the more influence it has over it's members.
cohesive
Higher __ people have more influence. EX: better dressed, more education, popular kids.
status
People don't conform as much when you answer ___. Hard to back down from __ commitment.
Privately
public
List two reasons WHY we conform.
Normative influence (we don't want to be rejected, differet, made fun of, etc.)

Information influence (not sure how we feel, so we look to others to be correct)
With normative infleunce, you either start to ___ what the group does, or just keep it to yourself.
believe
summary of conformity: To be ___ is to be ___
liked
right
___ = process by which a message induces change in beliefs, attitudes, or behaviors.
Persuasion
Persuasion is used with __ __ announcements like:
stop smoking
drunk driving
vote
seatbelts
etc.
Public service
Persuasion can be __ or ___
propaganda or educational
List the 5 hurdles to clear in persusion.
1) get someone to pay attention
2) they have to comprehend the message
3) have to believe the message
4) have to remember the message
5) Have to behave accordingly
It's important for people to understand ___ because people don't just sit there like passive sponges, they're trying to decide whether or not to __ to the message.
persuasion
message
list the 2 routes to persuasion and define.
Central route--focus on arguments

Peripheral Route--cues for acceptance without much thinking
If arguments are compelling, persuaion is __ likey and vice versa.
more
Problem with central route is that we're all __ and we don't have __ to think about arguments.
busy
time
central route is __ and ___, it's a high-effort. Most likely to work when ___ relevant like in the market for a car or college.
analytical
motivated
personally
Peripheral route use messages that are really ___ and easily ___. Communicators speak ___
simple
understood
quickly
Peripheral route works best when trying to sell ___.
Central route works best when trying to sell a ___
pop or clothing

computer or college
Peripheral route works best when trying to sell ___.
Central route works best when trying to sell a ___
pop or clothing

computer or college
The central route is __ __ and ___ __. If persuaded, more likely to stick.
deep thinking
persistent change
Peripheral route is ___ and causes __ __. Short run persuasion. Can change mind quickly.
superficial
temporary change
Name the 4 elements of persuasion.
communicator
mesage
channel
audience
The ___ is WHO says something affects how it will be recieved.
Communicator
The communicator is more persuasive the more ___ and ___ they are.
credible
attrative
In order for a communicator to be credible, they have to have perceived ___, which means they need to be introduced by another __ and speak ___.
expertise
expert
confidently
In order for a communicator to be credible, they have to be ___: look straight in eye, make it sounds like they're ___ persuading the person, talk ___.
trustworthy
NOT
fast
In order for a communicator to be attractive, they have to have __ __ (beautiful people are perceivs as smart, funny, nice, etc. YOu believe them more and buy the product)
physical appeal
In order for a communicator to be attractive, they have to be __ to yourself...we like people that are like us. It's more influential.
similar
The ___ = WHAT is said is important.
message
There are two arguments of the persuasive message....
reason vs. emotion

Primacy vs. recency
Reason vs. emotion depends on the ___...more educated people like reason and vice versa. Happens with ___...emotions. Associated with good feelings or ___
audience
elections
fear
Primacy vs. recency If argmument is presented, then time before the second argument, they'll be a ___ effect. If 2 arguments in a row, they'll be a ___ effect.
recency
primacy
The ___ = the WAY the message is delievered matters.
Channel
There are __ and __ channels. Neither work well because so many hurdles to jump.

There are also __ names and generic examples...where ___ names sell better.

Believable __ can replace hard truth with ____.
written and oral

brand brand

lies repitition
the ___ = WHO The message is delivered to.
audience
The audience involved 2 concepts....
self-esteem
age
The audience depends on _-__ = you want people with a moderate amt. If too low, won't care. If too high, egotistical. Either way...won't listen
self-esteem
Age can also affect the audience:
__ __ explanation = as you get older, your attitudes change and you become more conservative.

__ explanation = grew up at different times and have different experiences.

The attutdes you form in __ and __ will stay with you until at least middle age
Life Cycle

Generational

Teenage and 20s
Explain the 3 guidelines of cults.
1) rituals and beliefs devoted to a person.
2) have members isolated from surrounding "evil" culture
3) Charasmatic leader
Explain the 5 ways cults can suck you in.
1) Compliance breeds acceptance (make you first get more cult-members)

2) Foot-in-door-theory (start with small requests and build)

3) Charaismatic leader is seen as trustworthy and expert (use tricks to gain respect)

4) "Shower the people with love" (tel
Explain the 5 ways cults can suck you in.
1) Compliance breeds acceptance (make you first get more cult-members)

2) Foot-in-door-theory (start with small requests and build)

3) Charaismatic leader is seen as trustworthy and expert (use tricks to gain respect)

4) "Shower the people with love" (tell people how great they are)

5) Recruit young, less educated, idealistic, kids (take advantage of the trusting)
We can ALL be vulnerable to __ __ and __
social control
persuasion
___ = 2 or more people who interact with and influence on another, "us"

NEED TO INTERACT
group
__ __ found that people work harder, go faster in the presence of others.
Norm Triplett
__ __ __ = dominant response is more likely when others are around. THis was proposed by ___.
Social facilitation effect
Zajonc
The __ response is the most likely response to an activity. Like, if you're good at something, you'll do __ when in front of people. But if you're bad at something, you'll do __ when in front of others.
Dominant
Better
worse
___ = sheer numbers matter. In a crowd, feelings are ___. More people join in a crowd activity like laughing or clapping. We are more ___ aroused in a crowd.
Crowding intesified
physiologically
Give 3 reasons why social facilitation effect happens in the first place.
1) evaluation apprehension
2) driven by distraction
3) mere presence
__ __ = we're concerned about how others will evaluate us. (makes a difference WHO is evaluating us...more effect if we know and respect vs. never see again)
Evaluation apprehension
__ by __ = concern about audience. When concerned about audience, it distracts from performance. COnflict between paying attention to __ and paying attention to what you're ___
driven by distraction
audience
doing
__ __ = this alone can distract you (animals do this too, so maybe biological)
mere presence
__ __ = tendency for people to exert less effort when in a group with a common goal (tug-o-war, class project, etc)
Social loafing
Explain the inghram studies and results.
Had people pull ropes and measured how hard they pulled when they thought they were alone or in a group.

People would socially loaf by 18% when thought they were alone.
Social loafing stems from __ of __...you think others will pick up your slack.
diffusion of responsibility
List 4 ways to stop social loafing.
1) make everyone's performance measurable, not just the group's
2) make the task challenging and appealing to every person WANTS to do a good job
3) Add incentives
4) Make group of friends because less loafing when don't want to let down friends.
___ = loss os self-awareness and evaluation apprehension. Can range from food fight, to vandalism to riots.
Deindividuation
Why does deindividuation occur? You feel ___ in the group
anonymous
list 2 things that contribute to deindividuation.
Group size (big groups make people faceless)

Physical anonymity.
Zimbardo's study with women dressed as KKK and anonymous vs. those with nametags resulted in.
KKK women giving more shocks for longer times.
___ can explain deindividuation, as well as why our military wear these (easier to kill when anonymous).
Uniforms
__ __ = little things can lead to big trouble. Ex: yelling in a crowd makes you feel connected to others and yell more.
arousing activity
In the stoner studies, he had people decide how risky others should be in their decisions. Explain his results.
1) Group decisions wer riskier than individual's decision.
2) Importance of discussion (opinions converged)
3) group had more of a risk because share blame
__ __ = tendency for a group discussion to enhance initial learnings.

The more you talk, the __ you feel about something
Group polarization
stronger
Real life examples of group polarization include:
terrorist groups, internet, hate groups, etc.
___ = tendency of decision making groups to suppress dissent in the interst of group harmony
groupthink
List the 3 symptoms of groupthink
1) Overestimating might and right

2) Closed-minded

3) Pressures toward uniformity
Overestimating might and right: illusion of ___. We're over optomistic and blind to dangers.
Unquestioned belief in group's ___.
invulnerability
morality
The closed-minded have ___ and ___ view of opponent
rationalization
stereotyped
Pressure toward uniformity...__ __ (remind them of time they were wrong before)

__ ___ = people don't speak up because they feel vulnerable and causes tension.

__ of __ = since no one's speaking up, we all must agree.

__ __ = don't let anyone, or info, inside to a group that might sway their decision.
conformity pressures
self-censorship
illusion of unanimity
mind guards
How can you prevent groupthink (esp. as a leader)? List 5 ideas.
1) be impartial (no opinions to begin with)

2) encourage critical evaluation of the issues (have a devil's advocate)

3) Subdivide the group into smaller groups (bring groups together and talk about ALL issues brought up)

4) Welcome critiques (particularly from outside experts

5) "second chance" meeting (done before final decision is made)